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Code of Federal Regulations Currentness. Title 9. Animals and Animal Products. Chapter I. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture. Subchapter A. Animal Welfare. Part 3. Standards. Subpart E. Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals. Facilities and Operating Standards



Country of Origin: United States

Agency of Origin: Department of Agriculture, APHIS

National Citation: 9 CFR 3.100 - 3.118



Last checked by Web Center Staff: 11/2010


Summary:  

This subpart concerns the Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals.


Material in Full:

§ 3.100 Special considerations regarding compliance and/or variance.

§ 3.101 Facilities, general.

§ 3.102 Facilities, indoor.

§ 3.103 Facilities, outdoor.

§ 3.104 Space requirements.

§ 3.105 Feeding.

§ 3.106 Water quality.

§ 3.107 Sanitation.

§ 3.108 Employees or attendants.

§ 3.109 Separation.

§ 3.110 Veterinary care.

§ 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

§ 3.112 Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

§ 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

§ 3.114 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

§ 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements.

§ 3.116 Care in transit.

§ 3.117 Terminal facilities.

§ 3.118 Handling.

 

 

 

§ 3.100 Special considerations regarding compliance and/or variance.

(a) All persons subject to the Animal Welfare Act who maintain or otherwise handle marine mammals in captivity must comply with the provisions of this subpart, except that they may apply for and be granted a variance, [FN6] by the Deputy Administrator, from one or more specified provisions of § 3.104. The provisions of this Subpart shall not apply, however, in emergency circumstances where compliance with one or more requirements would not serve the best interest of the marine mammals concerned.

    Written permission from the Deputy Administrator to operate as a licensee or registrant under the Act without being in full compliance with one or more specified provisions of § 3.104.

(b) An application for a variance must be made to the Deputy Administrator in writing. The request must include:

(1) The species and number of animals involved,

(2) A statement from the attending veterinarian concerning the age and health status of the animals involved, and concerning whether the granting of a variance would be detrimental to the marine mammals involved,

(3) Each provision of the regulations that is not met,

(4) The time period requested for a variance,

(5) The specific reasons why a variance is requested, and

(6) The estimated cost of coming into compliance, if construction is involved.

(c) After receipt of an application for a variance, the Deputy Administrator may require the submission in writing of a report by two experts recommended by the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums and approved by the Deputy Administrator concerning potential adverse impacts on the animals involved or on other matters relating to the effects of the requested variance on the health and well-being of such marine mammals. Such a report will be required only in those cases when the Deputy Administrator determines that such expertise is necessary to determine whether the granting of a variance would cause a situation detrimental to the health and well-being of the marine mammals involved. The cost of such report is to be paid by the applicant.

(d) Variances granted for facilities because of ill or infirm marine mammals that cannot be moved without placing their well-being in jeopardy, or for facilities within 0.3048 meters (1 foot) of compliance with any space requirement may be granted for up to the life of the marine mammals involved. Otherwise, variances shall be granted for a period not exceeding July 30, 1986, Provided, however, That under circumstances deemed justified by the Deputy Administrator, a maximum extension of 1 year may be granted to attain full compliance. A written request for the extension must be received by the Deputy Administrator by May 30, 1986. Consideration for extension by the Deputy Administrator will be limited to unforeseen or unusual situations such as when necessary public funds cannot be allocated in an appropriate time frame for a facility to attain full compliance by July 30, 1986.

(e) The Deputy Administrator shall deny any application for a variance if he determines that it is not justified under the circumstances or that allowing it will be detrimental to the health and well-being of the marine mammals involved.

(f) Any facility housing marine mammals that does not meet all of the space requirements as of July 30, 1984, must meet all of the requirements by September 28, 1984, or may operate without meeting such requirements until action is taken on an application for a variance if the application is submitted to the Deputy Administrator on or before September 28, 1984.

(g) A research facility may be granted a variance from specified requirements of this Subpart when such variance is necessary for research purposes and is fully explained in the experimental design. Any time limitation stated in this section shall not be applicable in such case.

[48 FR 39036, Aug. 24, 1983; 48 FR 57471, Dec. 30, 1983; 49 FR 26681, June 28, 1984; 63 FR 2, Jan. 2, 1998]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.101 Facilities, general.

(a) Construction requirements.

(1) Indoor and outdoor housing facilities for marine mammals must be structurally sound and must be maintained in good repair to protect the animals from injury, to contain the animals within the facility, and to restrict the entrance of unwanted animals. Lagoon and similar natural seawater facilities must maintain effective barrier fences extending above the high tide water level, or other appropriate measures, on all sides of the enclosure not contained by dry land to fulfill the requirements of this section.

(2) All marine mammals must be provided with protection from abuse and harassment by the viewing public by the use of a sufficient number of uniformed or readily identifiable employees or attendants to supervise the viewing public, or by physical barriers, such as fences, walls, glass partitions, or distance, or any combination of these.

(3) All surfaces in a primary enclosure must be constructed of durable, nontoxic materials that facilitate cleaning, and disinfection as appropriate, sufficient to maintain water quality parameters as designated in § 3.106. All surfaces must be maintained in good repair as part of a regular, ongoing maintenance program. All facilities must implement a written protocol on cleaning so that surfaces do not constitute a health hazard to animals.

(4) Facilities that utilize natural water areas, such as tidal basins, bays, or estuaries (subject to natural tidewater action), for housing marine mammals are exempt from the drainage requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(b) Water and power supply. Reliable and adequate sources of water and electric power must be provided by the facility housing marine mammals. Written contingency plans must be submitted to and approved by the Deputy Administrator regarding emergency sources of water and electric power in the event of failure of the primary sources, when such failure could reasonably be expected to be detrimental to the good health and well-being of the marine mammals housed in the facility. Contingency plans must include, but not be limited to, specific animal evacuation plans in the event of a disaster and should describe back-up systems and/or arrangements for relocating marine mammals requiring artificially cooled or heated water. If the emergency contingency plan includes release of marine mammals, the plan must include provision for recall training and retrieval of such animals.

(c) Drainage.

(1) Adequate drainage must be provided for all primary enclosure pools and must be located so that all of the water contained in such pools may be effectively eliminated when necessary for cleaning the pool or for other purposes. Drainage effluent from primary enclosure pools must be disposed of in a manner that complies with all applicable Federal, State, and local pollution control laws.

(2) Drainage must be provided for primary enclosures and areas immediately surrounding pools. All drain covers and strainers must be securely fastened in order to minimize the potential risk of animal entrapment. Drains must be located so as to rapidly eliminate excess water (except in pools). Drainage effluent must be disposed of in a manner that complies with all applicable Federal, State, and local pollution control laws.

(d) Storage. Supplies of food must be stored in facilities that adequately protect such supplies from deterioration, spoilage (harmful microbial growth), and vermin or other contamination. Refrigerators and freezers (or chilled and/or iced coolers for under 12 hours) must be used for perishable food. No substances that are known to be or may be toxic or harmful to marine mammals may be stored or maintained in the marine mammal food storage or preparation areas, except that cleaning agents may be kept in secured cabinets designed and located to prevent food contamination. Food, supplements, and medications may not be used beyond commonly accepted shelf life or date listed on the label.

(e) Waste disposal. Provision must be made for the removal and disposal of animal and food wastes, dead animals, trash, and debris. Disposal facilities must be provided and operated in a manner that will minimize odors and the risk of vermin infestation and disease hazards. All waste disposal procedures must comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws pertaining to pollution control, protection of the environment, and public health.

(f) Employee washroom facilities. Washroom facilities containing basins, sinks, and, as appropriate, showers, must be provided and conveniently located to maintain cleanliness among employees, attendants, and volunteers. These facilities must be cleaned and sanitized daily.

(g) Enclosure or pool environmental enhancements. Any nonfood objects provided for the entertainment or stimulation of marine mammals must be of sufficient size and strength to not be ingestible, readily breakable, or likely to cause injury to marine mammals, and be able to be cleaned, sanitized, and/or replaced effectively.

[44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, as amended at 44 FR 63492, Nov. 2, 1979; 49 FR 26682, June 28, 1984; 66 FR 251, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.102 Facilities, indoor.

(a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or cooling to protect the marine mammals from extremes of temperature, to provide for their good health and well-being and to prevent discomfort, in accordance with the currently accepted practices as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, depending upon the species housed therein. Rapid changes in air and water temperatures shall be avoided.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities shall be ventilated by natural or artificial means to provide a flow of fresh air for the marine mammals and to minimize the accumulation of chlorine fumes, other gases, and objectionable odors. A vertical air space averaging at least 1.83 meters (6 feet) shall be maintained in all primary enclosures housing marine mammals, including pools of water.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities for marine mammals shall have ample lighting, by natural or artificial means, or both, of a quality, distribution, and duration which is appropriate for the species involved. Sufficient lighting must be available to provide uniformly distributed illumination which is adequate to permit routine inspections, observations, and cleaning of all parts of the primary enclosure including any den areas. The lighting shall be designed so as to prevent overexposure of the marine mammals contained therein to excessive illumination. [FN7]

[FN7] Lighting intensity and duration must be consistent with the general well-being and comfort of the animal involved. When possible, it should approximate the lighting conditions encountered by the animal in its natural environment. At no time shall the lighting be such that it will cause the animal discomfort or trauma.
[63 FR 2, Jan. 2, 1998]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.103 Facilities, outdoor.

(a) Environmental temperatures. Marine mammals shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless the air and water temperature ranges which they may encounter during the period they are so housed do not adversely affect their health and comfort. A marine mammal shall not be introduced to an outdoor housing facility until it is acclimated to the air and water temperature ranges which it will encounter therein. The following requirements shall be applicable to all outdoor pools.

(1) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing polar bears and ice or cold water dwelling species of pinnipeds shall be kept sufficiently free of solid ice to allow for entry and exit of the animals.

(2) The water surface of pools in outdoor primary enclosures housing cetaceans and sea otters shall be kept free of ice.

(3) No sirenian or warm water dwelling species of pinnipeds or cetaceans shall be housed in outdoor pools where water temperature cannot be maintained within the temperature range to meet their needs.

(b) Shelter. Natural or artificial shelter which is appropriate for the species concerned, when the local climatic conditions are taken into consideration, shall be provided for all marine mammals kept outdoors to afford them protection from the weather or from direct sunlight.

(c) Perimeter fence. On and after May 17, 2000, all outdoor housing facilities (i.e., facilities not entirely indoors) must be enclosed by a perimeter fence that is of sufficient height to keep animals and unauthorized persons out. Fences less than 8 feet high for polar bears or less than 6 feet high for other marine mammals must be approved in writing by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and unauthorized persons from going through it or under it and having contact with the marine mammals, and so that it can function as a secondary containment system for the animals in the facility when appropriate. The fence must be of sufficient distance from the outside of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and animals or persons outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved in writing by the Administrator. For natural seawater facilities, such as lagoons, the perimeter fence must prevent access by animals and unauthorized persons to the natural seawater facility from the abutting land, and must encompass the land portion of the facility from one end of the natural seawater facility shoreline as defined by low tide to the other end of the natural seawater facility shoreline defined by low tide. A perimeter fence is not required:

(1) Where the outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of sturdy, durable material, which may include certain types of concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts entry by animals and unauthorized persons and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(2) Where the outdoor housing facility is protected by an effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals and unauthorized persons and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(3) Where appropriate alternative security measures are employed and the Administrator gives written approval; or

(4) For traveling facilities where appropriate alternative security measures are employed.

[64 FR 56147, Oct. 18, 1999]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.104 Space requirements.

(a) General. Marine mammals must be housed in primary enclosures that comply with the minimum space requirements prescribed by this part. These enclosures must be constructed and maintained so that the animals contained within are provided sufficient space, both horizontally and vertically, to be able to make normal postural and social adjustments with adequate freedom of movement, in or out of the water. (An exception to these requirements is provided in § 3.110(b) for isolation or separation for medical treatment and/or medical training.) Enclosures smaller than required by the standards may be temporarily used for nonmedical training, breeding, holding, and transfer purposes. If maintenance in such enclosures for nonmedical training, breeding, or holding is to last longer than 2 weeks, such extension must be justified in writing by the attending veterinarian on a weekly basis. If maintenance in such enclosures for transfer is to last longer than 1 week, such extension must be justified in writing by the attending veterinarian on a weekly basis. Any enclosure that does not meet the minimum space requirement for primary enclosures (including, but not limited to, medical pools or enclosures, holding pools or enclosures, and gated side pools smaller than the minimum space requirements) may not be used for permanent housing purposes. Rotating animals between enclosures that meet the minimum space requirements and enclosures that do not is not an acceptable means of complying with the minimum space requirements for primary enclosures.

(b) Cetaceans. Primary enclosures housing cetaceans shall contain a pool of water and may consist entirely of a pool of water. In determining the minimum space required in a pool holding cetaceans, four factors must be satisfied. These are MHD, depth, volume, and surface area. For the purposes of this subpart, cetaceans are divided into Group I cetaceans and Group II cetaceans as shown in Table III in this section.

(1)(i) The required minimum horizontal dimension (MHD) of a pool for Group I cetaceans shall be 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or two times the average adult length of the longest species of Group I cetacean housed therein (as measured in a parallel or horizontal line, from the tip of its upper jaw, or from the most anterior portion of the head in bulbous headed animals, to the notch in the tail fluke [FN8]), whichever is greater; except that such MHD measurement may be reduced from the greater number by up to 20 percent if the amount of the reduction is added to the MHD at the 90-degree angle and if the minimum volume and surface area requirements are met based on an MHD of 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or two times the average adult length of the longest species of Group I cetacean housed therein, whichever is greater.

    The body length of a Monodon monoceros (narwhale) is measured from the tip of the upper incisor tooth to the notch in the tail fluke. If the upper incisor is absent or does not extend beyond the front of the head, then it is measured like other cetaceans, from the tip of the upper jaw to the notch in the tail fluke. Immature males should be anticipated to develop the “tusk” (usually left incisor tooth) beginning at sexual maturity.

(ii) The MHD of a pool for Group II cetaceans shall be 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or four times the average adult length of the longest species of cetacean to be housed therein (as measured in a parallel or horizontal line from the tip of its upper jaw, or from the most anterior portion of the head in bulbous headed animals, to the notch in the tail fluke), whichever is greater; except that such MHD measurement may be reduced from the greater number by up to 20 percent if the amount of the reduction is added to the MHD at the 90-degree angle and if the minimum volume and surface area requirements are met based on an MHD of 7.32 meters (24.0 feet) or four times the average adult length of the longest species of Group II cetacean housed therein, whichever is greater.

(iii) In a pool housing a mixture of Group I and Group II cetaceans, the MHD shall be the largest required for any cetacean housed therein.

(iv) Once the required MHD has been satisfied, the pool size may be required to be adjusted to increase the surface area and volume when cetaceans are added. Examples of MHD and volume requirements for Group I cetaceans are shown in Table I, and for Group II cetaceans in Table II.

Table I-Group I Cetaceans [FN1]
Representative average adult lengths
Minimum horizontal dimension (MHD)
Minimum required depth
Volume of water required for each additional cetacean in excess of two
Meters
Feet
Meters
Feet
Meters
Feet
Cubic meters
feet
1.68
5.5
7.32
24
1.83
6
8.11
284.95
2.29
7.5
7.32
24
1.83
6
15.07
529.87
2.74
9.0
7.32
24
1.83
6
21.57
763.02
3.05
10.0
7.32
24
1.83
6
26.73
942.00
3.51
11.5
7.32
24
1.83
6
35.40
1,245.79
3.66
12.0
7.32
24
1.83
6
38.49
1,356.48
4.27
14.0
8.53
28
2.13
7
60.97
2,154.04
5.49
18.0
10.97
36
2.74
9
129.65
4,578.12
5.64
18.5
11.28
37
2.82
9.25
140.83
4,970.33
5.79
19.0
11.58
38
2.90
9.50
152.64
5,384.32
6.71
22.0
13.41
44
3.36
11
237.50
8,358.68
6.86
22.5
13.72
45
3.43
11.25
253.42
8,941.64
7.32
24.0
14.63
48
3.66
12
307.89
10,851.84
8.53
28.0
17.07
56
4.27
14
487.78
17,232.32

[FN1] All calculations are rounded off to the nearest hundredth. In converting the length of cetaceans from feet to meters, 1 foot equals .3048 meter. Due to rounding of meter figures as to the length of the cetacean, the correlation of meters to feet in subsequent calculations of MHD and additional volume of water required per cetacean, over two, may vary slightly from a strict feet to meters ratio. Cubic meters is based on: 1 cubic foot=0.0283 cubic meter.
Table II-Group II Cetaceans [FN1]
Representative average adult length.
Minimum horizontal dimension (MHD)
Minimum required depth
Volume of water required for each additional cetacean in excess of four
Meters
Feet
Meters
Feet
Meters
Feet
Cubic meters [FN1]
Cubic feet
1.52
5.0
7.32
24
1.83
6
13.28
471.00
1.68
5.5
7.32
24
1.83
6
16.22
569.91
1.83
6.0
7.32
24
1.83
6
19.24
678.24
2.13
7.0
8.53
28
1.83
6
26.07
923.16
2.29
7.5
9.14
30
1.83
6
30.13
1,059.75
2.44
8.0
9.75
32
1.83
6
34.21
1,205.76
2.59
8.5
10.36
34
1.83
6
38.55
1,361.19
2.74
9.0
10.97
36
1.83
6
43.14
1,526.04
[FN1] Converting cubic feet to cubic meters is based on: 1 cubic foot=0.0283 of a cubic meter.
Table III-Average Adult Lengths of Marine Mammals Maintained in Captivity [FN1]
Average adult length
Species
Common name
In meters
In feet
Group I Cetaceans:
 
Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Minke whale
8.50
27.9
 
Cephalorhynchus commersonii
Commerson's dolphin
1.52
5.0
 
Delphinapterus leucas
Beluga whale
4.27
14.0
 
Monodon monoceros
Narwhale
3.96
13.0
 
Globicephala melaena
Long-finned pilot whale
5.79
19.0
 
Globicephala macrorhynchus
Short-finned pilot whale
5.49
18.0
 
Orcinus orca
Killer whale
7.32
24.0
 
Pseudorca carassidens
False killer whale
4.35
14.3
 
Tursiops truncatus (Atlantic)
Bottlenose dolphin
2.74
9.0
 
Tursiops truncatus (Pacific)
Bottlenose dolphin
3.05
10.0
 
Inia geoffrensis
Amazon porpoise
2.44
8.0
 
Phocoena phocoena
Harbor porpoise
1.68
5.5
 
Pontoporia blainvillei
Franciscana
1.52
5.0
 
Sotalia fluviatilis
Tucuxi
1.68
5.5
 
Platanista, all species
River dolphin
2.44
8.0
Group II Cetaceans:
 
Delphinus delphis
Common dolphin
2.59
8.5
 
Feresa attenuata
Pygmy killer whale
2.44
8.0
 
Kogia breviceps
Pygmy sperm whale
3.96
13.0
 
Kogia simus
Dwarf sperm whale
2.90
9.5
 
Lagenorhynchus acutus
Atlantic white-sided dolphin
2.90
9.5
 
Lagenorhynchus cruciger
Hourglass dolphin
1.70
5.6
 
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
Pacific white-sided dolphin
2.29
7.5
 
Lagenorhynchus albirostris
White-beaked dolphin
2.74
9.0
 
Lagenorhynchus obscurus
Duskey dolphin
2.13
7.0
 
Lissodelphis borealis
Northern right whale dolphin
2.74
9.0
 
Neophocaena phocaenoides
Finless porpoise
1.83
6.0
 
Peponocephala electra
Melon-headed whale
2.74
9.0
 
Phocoenoides dalli
Dall's porpoise
2.00
6.5
 
Stenella longirostris
Spinner dolphin
2.13
7.0
 
Stenella coeruleoalba
Striped dolphin
2.29
7.5
 
Stenella attenuata
Spotted dolphin
2.29
7.5
 
Stenella plagiodon
Spotted dolphin
2.29
7.5
 
Steno bredanensis
Rough-toothed dolphin
2.44
8.0
[FN1] This table contains the species of marine mammals known by the Department to be presently in captivity or that are likely to become captive in the future. Anyone who is subject to the Animal Welfare Act having species of marine mammals in captivity which are not included in this table should consult the Deputy Administrator with regard to the average adult length of such animals.
Average adult length
In meters
In feet
Species
Common name
Male
Female
Male
Female
Group I Pinnipeds:
 
Arctocephalus gazella**
Antarctic Fur Seal
1.80
1.20
5.9
3.9
 
Arctocephalus tropicalis**
Amsterdam Island Fur Seal
1.80
1.45
5.9
4.75
 
Arctocephalus australis**
South American Fur Seal
1.88
1.42
6.2
4.7
 
Arctocephalus pusillis**
Cape Fur Seal
2.73
1.83
8.96
6.0
 
Callorhinus ursinus**
Northern Fur Seal
2.20
1.45
7.2
4.75
 
Eumetopias jubatus**
Steller's Sea Lion
2.86
2.40
9.4
7.9
 
Hydrurga leptonyx
Leopard Seal
2.90
3.30
9.5
10.8
 
Mirounga angustirostris**
Northern Elephant Seal
3.96
2.49
13.0
8.2
 
Mirounga leonina**
Southern Elephant Seal
4.67
2.50
15.3
8.2
 
Odobenus rosmarus**
Walrus
3.15
2.60
10.3
8.5
 
Otaria flavescens**
South American Sea Lion
2.40
2.00
7.9
6.6
 
Phoca caspica
Caspian Seal
1.45
1.40
4.75
4.6
 
Phoca fasciata
Ribbon Seal
1.75
1.68
5.7
5.5
 
Phoca larga
Harbor Seal
1.70
1.50
5.6
4.9
 
Phoca vitulina
Habor Seal
1.70
1.50
5.6
4.9
 
Zalophus californianus
California Sea Lion
2.24
1.75
7.3
5.7
 
Halichoerus grypus**
Grar Seal
2.30
1.95
7.5
6.4
 
Phoca sibirica
Baikal Seal
1.70
1.85
5.6
6.1
 
Phoca groenlandica
Harp Seal
1.85
1.85
6.1
6.1
 
Leptonychotes weddelli**
Weddell Seal
2.90
3.15
9.5
10.3
 
Lobodon carcinophagus**
Crabeater Seal
2.21
2.21
7.3
7.3
 
Ommatophoca rossi**
Ross Seal
1.99
2.13
6.5
7.0
Group II Pinnipeds:
 
Erignathus barbatus
Bearded Seal
2.33
2.33
7.6
7.6
 
Phoca hispida
Ringed Seal
1.35
1.30
4.4
4.3
 
Cystophora cristata
Hooded Seal
2.60
2.00
8.5
6.6
Note.-** Any Group I animals maintained together will be considered as Group II when the animals maintained together include two or more sexually mature males from species marked with a double asterisk (**) regardless of whether the sexually mature males from the same species.
Average adult length
Species
Common name
In meters
In feet
Sirenia:
 
Dugong dugong
Dugong
3.35
11.0
 
Trichechus manatus
West Indian Manatee
3.51
11.5
 
Trichechus inunguis
Amazon Manatee
2.44
8.0
Mustelidae:
 
Enhydra lutris
Sea Otter
1.25
4.1


(2) The minimum depth requirement for primary enclosure pools for all cetaceans shall be one-half the average adult length of the longest species to be housed therein, regardless of Group I or Group II classification, or 1.83 meters (6.0 feet), whichever is greater, and can be expressed as d=L/2 or 6 feet, whichever is greater. Those parts of the primary enclosure pool which do not meet the minimum depth requirement cannot be included when calculating space requirements for cetaceans.

(3) Pool volume. A pool of water housing cetaceans which satisfies the MHD and which meets the minimum depth requirement, will have sufficient volume and surface area to hold up to two Group I cetaceans or up to four Group II cetaceans. If additional cetaceans are to be added to the pool, the volume as well as the surface area may have to be adjusted to allow for additional space necessary for such cetaceans. See Tables I, II, and IV for volumes and surface area requirements. The additional volume needed shall be based on the number and kind of cetaceans housed therein and shall be determined in the following manner.

(i) The minimum volume of water required for up to two Group I cetaceans is based upon the following formula:

Image 1 (1.97" X .36") Available for Offline Print

When there are more than two Group I cetaceans housed in a primary enclosure pool, the additional volume of water required for each additional Group I cetacean in excess of two is based on the following formula:

Image 2 (2.68" X .43") Available for Offline Print

See Table I for required volumes.

(ii) The minimum volume of water required for up to four Group II cetaceans is based upon the following formula:

Image 3 (1.96" X .36") Available for Offline Print

When there are more than four Group II cetaceans housed in a primary enclosure pool, the additional volume of water required for each additional Group II cetacean in excess of four is based on the following formula:

Volume=(Average Adult Length)2 x3.14 x depth

See Table II for required volumes.

(iii) When a mixture of both Group I and Group II cetaceans are housed together, the MHD must be satisfied as stated in § 3.104(b)(1), and the minimum depth must be satisfied as stated in § 3.104(b)(2). Based on these figures, the resulting volume must then be calculated

Image 4 (1.98" X .37") Available for Offline Print

Then the volume necessary for the cetaceans to be housed in the pool must be calculated (by obtaining the sum of the volumes required for each animal). If this volume is greater than that obtained by using the MHD and depth figures, then the additional volume required may be added by enlarging the pool in its lateral dimensions or by increasing its depth, or both. The minimum surface area requirements discussed next must also be satisfied.

(4)(i) The minimum surface area requirements for each cetacean housed in a pool, regardless of Group I or Group II classification, are calculated as follows:

Image 5 (2.35" X .71") Available for Offline Print

In a pool containing more than two Group I cetaceans or more than four Group II cetaceans, [FN9] the additional surface area which may be required when animals are added must be calculated for each such animal.

9 A pool containing up to two Group I cetaceans or up to four Group II cetaceans which meets the required MHD and depth will have the necessary surface area and volume required for the animals contained therein.

(ii) When a mixture of Group I and Group II cetaceans are to be housed in a pool, the required MHD, depth, and volume must be met. Then the required surface area must be determined for each animal in the pool. The sum of these surface areas must then be compared to the surface area which is obtained by a computation based on the required MHD of the pool. [FN10] The larger of the two figures represents the surface area which is required for a pool housing a mixture of Group I and Group II cetaceans. Pool surfaces where the depth does not meet the minimum requirements cannot be used in determining the required surface area.

10 Since the MHD represents the diameter of a circle, the surface area based on the MHD is calculated by use of the following formula:

Image 6 (1.17" X .45") Available for Offline Print

(iii) Surface area requirements are given in Table IV.

Table IV-Minimum Surface Area Required for Each Cetacean
Average adult length of each cetacean
Surface area required for each cetacean
Meters
Feet
Sq. meters [FN1]
Sq. feet
1.68
5.5
3.31
33.62
2.13
7.0
5.36
57.70
2.29
7.5
6.15
66.23
2.59
8.5
7.90
85.07
2.74
9.0
8.86
95.38
3.05
10.0
10.94
117.75
3.51
11.5
14.47
155.72
3.66
12.0
15.75
169.56
4.27
14.0
21.44
230.79
5.49
18.0
35.44
381.51
5.64
18.5
37.43
403.00
5.79
19.0
39.49
425.08
6.71
22.0
52.94
569.91
6.86
22.5
55.38
596.11
7.32
24.0
63.01
678.24
8.53
28.0
85.76
923.16

[FN1] Square meter=square feet/9x0.8361.


(c) Sirenians. Primary enclosures housing sirenians shall contain a pool of water and may consist entirely of a pool of water.

(1) The required MHD of a primary enclosure pool for sirenians shall be two times the average adult length of the longest species of sirenian to be housed therein. Calculations shall be based on the average adult length of such sirenians as measured in a horizontal line from the tip of the muzzle to the notch in the tail fluke of dugongs and from the tip of the muzzle to the most distal point in the rounded tail of the manatee.

(2) The minimum depth requirements for primary enclosure pools for all sirenians shall be one-half the average adult length of the longest species to be housed therein, or 1.52 meters (5.0 feet), whichever is greater. Those parts of the primary enclosure pool which do not meet the minimum depth requirements cannot be included when calculating space requirements for sirenians.

(3) A pool which satisfies the required MHD and depth shall be adequate for one or two sirenians. Volume and surface area requirements for additional animals shall be calculated using the same formula as for Group I cetaceans, except that the figure for depth requirement for sirenians shall be one-half the average adult length or 1.52 meters (5.0 feet), whichever is greater.

(d) Pinnipeds.

(1) Primary enclosures housing pinnipeds shall contain a pool of water and a dry resting or social activity area that must be close enough to the surface of the water to allow easy access for entering or leaving the pool. For the purposes of this subpart, pinnipeds have been divided into Group I pinnipeds and Group II pinnipeds as shown in Table III in this section. In certain instances some Group I pinnipeds shall be considered as Group II pinnipeds. (See Table III).

(2) The minimum size of the dry resting or social activity area of the primary enclosure for pinnipeds (exclusive of the pool of water) shall be based on the average adult length of each pinniped contained therein, as measured in a horizontal or extended position in a straight line from the tip of its nose to the tip of its tail. The minimum size of the dry resting or social activity area shall be computed using the following methods:

(i) Group I pinnipeds. Square the average adult length of each pinniped to be contained in the primary enclosure. Add the figures obtained for each of the pinnipeds in the primary enclosure to determine the dry resting or social activity area required for such pinnipeds. If only a single Group I pinniped is maintained in the primary enclosure, the minimum dry resting or social activity area shall be twice the square of the average adult length of that single Group I pinniped. Examples:

(average adult length)2 of 1st Group I pinniped+(average adult length)2 of 2nd Group I pinniped=Total DRA for two pinnipeds

DRA for one pinniped=2x(average adult length of Group I pinniped)2

(ii) Group II pinnipeds. List all pinnipeds contained in a primary enclosure by average adult length in descending order from the longest species of pinniped to the shortest species of pinniped. Square the average adult length of each pinniped. Multiply the average adult length squared of the longest pinniped by 1.5, the second longest by 1.4, the third longest by 1.3, the fourth longest by 1.2, and the fifth longest by 1.1, as indicated in the following example. Square the average adult length of the sixth pinniped and each additional pinniped. Add the figures obtained for all the pinnipeds in the primary enclosure to determine the required minimum dry resting or social activity area required for such pinnipeds. If only a single Group II pinniped is maintained in the primary enclosure, the minimum dry resting or social activity area must be computed for a minimum of two pinnipeds.

Examples: DRA for 1 Group II Pinniped=[(Average adult length)2 x1.5]+[(Average adult length)2 x1.4]

1st pinniped (avg. adult length)2x1.5=
social and DRA required
2nd pinniped (avg. adult length)2x1.4=
social and DRA required
3rd pinniped (avg. adult length)1x1.3=
social and DRA required
4th pinniped (avg. adult length)2x1.2=
social and DRA required
5th pinniped (avg. adult length)2x1.1=
social and DRA required
Each pinniped over 5 (avg. adult length)2=
social and DRA required
Total minimum social activity and dry resting area required for all pinnipeds housed in a primary enclosure.

If all the pinnipeds in the primary enclosure are of the same species, the same descending order of calculation shall apply. Example: Hooded seal--average adult length of male=8.5 feet and female=6.6 feet. In a primary enclosure containing 2 males and 2 females, the social or DRA required would be the sum of [(8.5)2 x1.5]+[(8.5)2 x1.4]+[(6.6)2 x1.3]+[(6.6)2 x1.2].


 

If two or more sexually mature males are maintained together in a primary enclosure, the dry resting or social activity area shall be divided into two or more separate areas with sufficient visual barriers (such as fences, rocks, or foliage) to provide relief from aggressive animals.


 

(iii) Mixture of Group I and Group II pinnipeds. In a primary enclosure where a mixture of Group I and Group II pinnipeds is to be housed, the dry resting or social activity area shall be calculated as for Group II pinnipeds. The dry resting or social activity area shall be divided into two or more separate areas with sufficient visual barriers (such as fences, rocks, or foliage) to provide relief from aggressive animals.


 

(3)(i) The minimum surface area of a pool of water for pinnipeds shall be at least equal to the dry resting or social activity area required.


 

(ii) The MHD of the pool shall be at least one and one-half (1.5) times the average adult length of the largest species of pinniped to be housed in the enclosure; except that such MHD measurement may be reduced by up to 20 percent if the amount of the reduction is added to the MHD at the 90-degree angle.


 

(iii) The pool of water shall be at least 0.91 meters (3.0 feet) deep or one-half the average adult length of the longest species of pinniped contained therein, whichever is greater. Parts of the pool that do not meet the minimum depth requirement cannot be used in the calculation of the dry resting and social activity area, or as part of the MHD or required surface area of the pool.


(e) Polar bears. Primary enclosures housing polar bears shall consist of a pool of water, a dry resting and social activity area, and a den. A minimum of 37.16 square meters (400 square feet) of dry resting and social activity area shall be provided for up to two polar bears, with an additional 3.72 square meters (40 square feet) of dry resting and social activity area for each additional polar bear. The dry resting and social activity area shall be provided with enough shade to accommodate all of the polar bears housed in such primary enclosure at the same time. The pool of water shall have an MHD of not less than 2.44 meters (8.0 feet) and a surface area of at least 8.93 square meters (96.0 square feet) with a minimum depth of 1.52 meters (5.0 feet) with the exception of any entry and exit area. This size pool shall be adequate for two polar bears. For each additional bear, the surface area of the pool must be increased by 3.72 square meters (40 square feet). In measuring this additional surface area, parts of the pool which do not meet minimum depth cannot be considered. The den shall be at least 1.83 meters (6 feet) in width and depth and not less than 1.52 meters (5 feet) in height. It will be so positioned that the viewing public shall not be visible from the interior of the den. A separate den shall be provided for each adult female of breeding age which is permanently housed in the same primary enclosure with an adult male of breeding age. Female polar bears in traveling acts or shows must be provided a den when pregnancy has been determined.

(f) Sea otters.

(1) Primary enclosures for sea otters shall consist of a pool of water and a dry resting area. The MHD of the pool of water for sea otters shall be at least three times the average adult length of the sea otter contained therein (measured in a horizontal line from the tip of its nose to the tip of its tail) and the pool shall be not less than .91 meters (3.0 feet) deep. When more than two sea otters are housed in the same primary enclosure, additional dry resting area as well as pool volume is required to accommodate the additional sea otters. (See Table V).

(2) The minimum volume of water required for a primary enclosure pool for sea otters shall be based on the sea otter's average adult length. The minimum volume of water required in the pool shall be computed using the following method: Multiply the square of the sea otter's average adult length by 3.14 and then multiply the total by 0.91 meters (3.0 feet). This volume is satisfactory for one or two otters. To calculate the additional volume of water for each additional sea otter above two in a primary enclosure, multiply one-half of the square of the sea otter's average adult length by 3.14, then multiply by 0.91 meters (3.0 feet). (See Table V).

(3) The minimum dry resting area required for one or two sea otters shall be based on the sea otter's average adult length. The minimum dry resting area for one or two sea otters shall be computed using the following method: Square the average adult length of the sea otter and multiply the total by 3.14. When the enclosure is to contain more than two sea otters, the dry resting area for each additional animal shall be computed by multiplying one-half of the sea otter's average adult length by 3.14. Using 1.25 meters or 4.1 feet (the average adult length of a sea otter), the calculations for additional space will result in the following figures:

Table V-Additional Space Required for Each Sea Otter When More Than Two in a Primary Enclosure
Average adult length of sea otter
Resting area
Pool Volume
Meters
Feet
Square meters
Square Feet
Cubic meters
Cubic feet
1.25
4.1
1.96
6.44
2.23
79.17

[44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 63261, Sept. 24, 1980; 49 FR 26682, 26685, June 28, 1984; 49 FR 27922, July 9, 1984; 50 FR 16457, April 26, 1985; 63 FR 2, Jan. 2, 1998; 63 FR 47148, Sept. 4, 1998; 66 FR 252, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.105 Feeding.

(a) The food for marine mammals must be wholesome, palatable, and free from contamination and must be of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain marine mammals in a state of good health. The diet must be prepared with consideration for factors such as age, species, condition, and size of the marine mammal being fed. Marine mammals must be offered food at least once a day, except as directed by the attending veterinarian.

(b) Food receptacles, if used, must be located so as to be accessible to all marine mammals in the same primary enclosure and must be placed so as to minimize contamination of the food they contain. Such food receptacles must be cleaned and sanitized after each use.

(c) Food, when given to each marine mammal individually, must be given by an employee or attendant responsible to management who has the necessary knowledge to assure that each marine mammal receives an adequate quantity of food to maintain it in good health. Such employee or attendant is required to have the ability to recognize deviations from a normal state of good health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding 24 hours must be reported immediately to the attending veterinarian. Public feeding may be permitted only in the presence and under the supervision of a sufficient number of knowledgeable, uniformed employees or attendants. Such employees or attendants must assure that the marine mammals are receiving the proper amount and type of food. Only food supplied by the facility where the marine mammals are kept may be fed to the marine mammals by the public. Marine mammal feeding records noting the estimated individual daily consumption must be maintained at the facility for a period of 1 year and must be made available for APHIS inspection. For marine mammals that are individually fed and not subject to public feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in part, by the public, and for large, group-fed colonies of marine mammals where individual rations are not practical or feasible to maintain, the daily food consumption should be estimated as precisely as possible.

(d) Food preparation and handling must be conducted so as to assure the wholesomeness and nutritive value of the food. Frozen fish or other frozen food must be stored in freezers that are maintained at a maximum temperature of -18 °C (0 °F). The length of time food is stored and the method of storage, the thawing of frozen food, and the maintenance of thawed food must be conducted in a manner that will minimize contamination and that will assure that the food retains nutritive value and wholesome quality until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used. All foods must be fed to the marine mammals within 24 hours following the removal of such foods from the freezers for thawing, or if the food has been thawed under refrigeration, it must be fed to the marine mammals within 24 hours of thawing.

[66 FR 252, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.106 Water quality.

(a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained therein.

(b) Bacterial standards.

(1) The coliform bacteria count of the primary enclosure pool shall not exceed 1,000 MPN (most probable number) per 100 ml. of water. Should a coliform bacterial count exceed 1,000 MPN, two subsequent samples may be taken at 48-hour intervals and averaged with the first sample. If such average count does not fall below 1,000 MPN, then the water in the pool shall be deemed unsatisfactory, and the condition must be corrected immediately.

(2) When the water is chemically treated, the chemicals shall be added so as not to cause harm or discomfort to the marine mammals.

(3) Water samples shall be taken and tested at least weekly for coliform count and at least daily for pH and any chemical additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards. Facilities using natural seawater shall be exempt from pH and chemical testing unless chemicals are added to maintain water quality. However, they are required to test for coliforms. Records must be kept documenting the time when all such samples were taken and the results of the sampling. Records of all such test results shall be maintained by management for a 1-year period and must be made available for inspection purposes on request.

(c) Salinity. Primary enclosure pools of water shall be salinized for marine cetaceans as well as for those other marine mammals which require salinized water for their good health and well-being. The salinity of the water in such pools shall be maintained within a range of 15-36 parts per thousand.

(d) Filtration and water flow. Water quality must be maintained by filtration, chemical treatment, or other means so as to comply with the water quality standards specified in this section.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.107 Sanitation.

(a) Primary enclosures.

(1) Animal and food waste in areas other than the pool of water must be removed from the primary enclosures at least daily, and more often when necessary, in order to provide a clean environment and minimize health and disease hazards.

(2) Particulate animal and food waste, trash, or debris that enters the primary enclosure pools of water must be removed at least daily, or as often as necessary, to maintain the required water quality and to minimize health and disease hazards to the marine mammals.

(3) The wall and bottom surfaces of the primary enclosure pools of water must be cleaned as often as necessary to maintain proper water quality. Natural organisms (such as algae, coelenterates, or molluscs, for example) that do not degrade water quality as defined in § 3.106, prevent proper maintenance, or pose a health or disease hazard to the animals are not considered contaminants.

(b) Food preparation. Equipment and utensils used in food preparation must be cleaned and sanitized after each use. Kitchens and other food handling areas where animal food is prepared must be cleaned at least once daily and sanitized at least once every week. Sanitizing must be accomplished by washing with hot water (8 °C, 180 °F, or higher) and soap or detergent in a mechanical dishwasher, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with live steam. Substances such as cleansing and sanitizing agents, pesticides, and other potentially toxic agents must be stored in properly labeled containers in secured cabinets designed and located to prevent contamination of food storage preparation surfaces.

(c) Housekeeping. Buildings and grounds, as well as exhibit areas, must be kept clean and in good repair. Fences must be maintained in good repair. Primary enclosures housing marine mammals must not have any loose objects or sharp projections and/or edges which may cause injury or trauma to the marine mammals contained therein.

(d) Pest control. A safe and effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests must be established and maintained. Insecticides or other such chemical agents must not be applied in primary enclosures housing marine mammals except when deemed essential by an attending veterinarian.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.108 Employees or attendants.

(a) A sufficient number of adequately trained employees or attendants, responsible to management and working in concert with the attending veterinarian, must be utilized to maintain the prescribed level of husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Such practices must be conducted under the supervision of a marine mammal caretaker who has demonstrable experience in marine mammal husbandry and care.

(b) The facility will provide and document participation in and successful completion of a facility training course for such employees. This training course will include, but is not limited to, species appropriate husbandry techniques, animal handling techniques, and information on proper reporting protocols, such as recordkeeping and notification of veterinary staff for medical concerns.

(c) Any training of marine mammals must be done by or under the direct supervision of experienced trainers.

(d) Trainers and handlers must meet professionally recognized standards for experience and training.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.109 Separation.

Marine mammals, whenever known to be primarily social in the wild, must be housed in their primary enclosure with at least one compatible animal of the same or biologically related species, except when the attending veterinarian, in consultation with the husbandry/training staff, determines that such housing is not in the best interest of the marine mammal's health or well-being. However, marine mammals that are not compatible must not be housed in the same enclosure. Marine mammals must not be housed near other animals that cause them unreasonable stress or discomfort or interfere with their good health. Animals housed separately must have a written plan, approved by the attending veterinarian, developed in consultation with the husbandry/training staff, that includes the justification for the length of time the animal will be kept separated or isolated, information on the type and frequency of enrichment and interaction, if appropriate, and provisions for periodic review of the plan by the attending veterinarian. Marine mammals that are separated for nonmedical purposes must be held in facilities that meet minimum space requirements as outlined in § 3.104.

[66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.110 Veterinary care.

(a) Newly acquired marine mammals must be isolated from resident marine mammals. Animals with a known medical history must be isolated unless or until the newly acquired animals can be reasonably determined to be in good health by the attending veterinarian. Animals without a known medical history must be isolated until it is determined that the newly acquired animals are determined to be in good health by the attending veterinarian. Any communicable disease condition in a newly acquired marine mammal must be remedied before it is placed with resident marine mammals, unless, in the judgment of the attending veterinarian, the potential benefits of a resident animal as a companion to the newly acquired animal outweigh the risks to the resident animal.

(b) Holding facilities must be in place and available to meet the needs for isolation, separation, medical treatment, and medical training of marine mammals. Marine mammals that are isolated or separated for nonmedical purposes must be held in facilities that meet minimum space requirements as outlined in § 3.104. Holding facilities used only for medical treatment and medical training need not meet the minimum space requirements as outlined in § 3.104. Holding of a marine mammal in a medical treatment or medical training enclosure that does not meet minimum space requirements for periods longer than 2 weeks must be noted in the animal's medical record and the attending veterinarian must provide a justification in the animal's medical record. If holding in such enclosures for medical treatment and/or medical training is to last longer than 2 weeks, such extension must be justified in writing by the attending veterinarian on a weekly basis. In natural lagoon or coastal enclosures where isolation cannot be accomplished, since water circulation cannot be controlled or isolated, separation of newly acquired marine mammals must be accomplished using separate enclosures situated within the facility to prevent direct contact and to minimize the risk of potential airborne and water cross-contamination between newly acquired and resident animals.

(c) Any holding facility used for medical purposes that has contained a marine mammal with an infectious or contagious disease must be cleaned and/or sanitized in a manner prescribed by the attending veterinarian. No healthy animals may be introduced into this holding facility prior to such cleaning and/or sanitizing procedures. Any marine mammal exposed to a contagious animal must be evaluated by the attending veterinarian and monitored and/or isolated for an appropriate period of time as determined by the attending veterinarian.

(d) Individual animal medical records must be kept and made available for APHIS inspection. These medical records must include at least the following information:

(1) Animal identification/name, a physical description, including any identifying markings, scars, etc., age, and sex; and

(2) Physical examination information, including but not limited to length, weight, physical examination results by body system, identification of all medical and physical problems with proposed plan of action, all diagnostic test results, and documentation of treatment.

(e) A copy of the individual animal medical record must accompany any marine mammal upon its transfer to another facility, including contract or satellite facilities.

(f) All marine mammals must be visually examined by the attending veterinarian at least semiannually and must be physically examined under the supervision of and when determined to be necessary by the attending veterinarian. All cetaceans and sirenians must be physically examined by the attending veterinarian at least annually, unless APHIS grants an exception from this requirement based on considerations related to the health and safety of the cetacean or sirenian. These examinations must include, but are not limited to, a hands-on physical examination, hematology and blood chemistry, and other diagnostic tests as determined by the attending veterinarian.

(g)(1) A complete necropsy, including histopathology samples, microbiological cultures, and other testing as appropriate, must be conducted by or under the supervision of the attending veterinarian on all marine mammals that die in captivity. A preliminary necropsy report must be prepared by the veterinarian listing all pathologic lesions observed. The final necropsy report must include all gross and histopathological findings, the results of all laboratory tests performed, and a pathological diagnosis.

(2) Necropsy records will be maintained at the marine mammal's home facility and at the facility at which it died, if different, for a period of 3 years and must be presented to APHIS inspectors when requested.

[54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 66 FR 253, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.111 Swim-with-the-dolphin programs.

<Text of section suspended effective April 2, 1999.>

Swim-with-the-dolphin programs shall comply with the requirements in this section, as well as with all other applicable requirements of the regulations pertaining to marine mammals.

(a) Space requirements. The primary enclosure for SWTD cetaceans shall contain an interactive area, a buffer area, and a sanctuary area. None of these areas shall be made uninviting to the animals. Movement of cetaceans into the buffer or sanctuary area shall not be restricted in any way. Notwithstanding the space requirements set forth in § 3.104, each of the three areas required for SWTD programs shall meet the following space requirements:

(1) The horizontal dimension for each area must be at least three times the average adult body length of the species of cetacean used in the program;

(2) The minimum surface area required for each area is calculated as follows:

(i) Up to two cetaceans:

Image 1 (4.29" X .48") Available for Offline Print

(ii) Three cetaceans:

Image 2 (1.76" X .51") Available for Offline Print

(iii) Additional SA for each animal in excess of three:

Image 3 (1.55" X .54") Available for Offline Print

(3) The average depth for sea pens, lagoons, and similar natural enclosures at low tide shall be at least 9 feet. The average depth for any manmade enclosure or other structure not subject to tidal action shall be at least 9 feet. A portion of each area may be excluded when calculating the average depth, but the excluded portion may not be used in calculating whether the interactive, buffer, and sanctuary area meet the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(4) of this section.

(4) The minimum volume required for each animal is calculated as follows:

Volume = SA x 9

(b) Water clarity. Sufficient water clarity shall be maintained so that attendants are able to observe cetaceans and humans at all times while within the interactive area. If water clarity does not allow these observations, the interactive sessions shall be canceled until the required clarity is provided.

(c) Employees and attendants. Each SWTD program shall have, at the minimum, the following personnel, with the following minimum backgrounds (each position shall be held by a separate individual, with a sufficient number of attendants to comply with § 3.111(e)(4)):

(1) Licensee or manager--at least one full-time staff member with at least 6 years experience in a professional or managerial position dealing with captive cetaceans;

(2) Head trainer/behaviorist--at least one full-time staff member with at least 6 years experience in training cetaceans for SWTD behaviors in the past 10 years, or an equivalent amount of experience involving in-water training of cetaceans, who serves as the head trainer for the SWTD program;

(3) Trainer/supervising attendant--at least one full-time staff member with at least 3 years training and/or handling experience involving human/cetacean interaction programs;

(4) Attendant--an adequate number of staff members who are adequately trained in the care, behavior, and training of the program animals. Attendants shall be designated by the trainer, in consultation with the head trainer/behaviorist and licensee/manager, to conduct and monitor interactive sessions in accordance with § 3.111(e); and

(5) Attending veterinarian--at least one staff or consultant veterinarian who has at least the equivalent of 2 years full-time experience (4,160 or more hours) with cetacean medicine within the past 10 years, and who is licensed to practice veterinary medicine.

(d) Program animals. Only cetaceans that meet the requirements of § 3.111(e)(2) and (3) may be used in SWTD programs.

(e) Handling.

(1) Interaction time (i.e., designated interactive swim sessions) for each cetacean shall not exceed 2 hours per day. Each program cetacean shall have at least one period in each 24 hours of at least 10 continuous hours without public interaction.

(2) All cetaceans used in an interactive session shall be adequately trained and conditioned in human interaction so that they respond in the session to the attendants with appropriate behavior for safe interaction. The head trainer/behaviorist, trainer/supervising attendant, or attendant shall, at all times, control the nature and extent of the cetacean interaction with the public during a session, using the trained responses of the program animal.

(3) All cetaceans used in interactive sessions shall be in good health, including, but not limited to, not being infectious. Cetaceans undergoing veterinary treatment may be used in interactive sessions only with the approval of the attending veterinarian.

(4) The ratio of human participants to cetaceans shall not exceed 3:1. The ratio of human participants to attendants or other authorized SWTD personnel (i.e., head trainer/behaviorist or trainer/supervising attendant) shall not exceed 3:1.

(5) Prior to participating in an SWTD interactive session, members of the public shall be provided with oral and written rules and instructions for the session, to include the telephone and FAX numbers for APHIS, Animal Care, for reporting injuries or complaints. Members of the public shall agree, in writing, to abide by the rules and instructions before being allowed to participate in the session. Any participant who fails to follow the rules or instructions shall be removed from the session by the facility.

(6) All interactive sessions shall have at least two attendants or other authorized SWTD personnel (i.e., head trainer/behaviorist or trainer/supervising attendant). At least one attendant shall be positioned out of the water. One or more attendants or other authorized SWTD personnel may be positioned in the water. If a facility has more than two incidents during interactive sessions within a year's time span that have been dangerous or harmful to either a cetacean or a human, APHIS, in consultation with the head trainer/behaviorist, will determine if changes in attendant positions are needed.

(7) All SWTD programs shall limit interaction between cetaceans and humans so that the interaction does not harm the cetaceans, does not remove the element of choice from the cetaceans by actions such as, but not limited to, recalling the animal from the sanctuary area, and does not elicit unsatisfactory, undesirable, or unsafe behaviors from the cetaceans. All SWTD programs shall prohibit grasping or holding of the cetacean's body, unless under the direct and explicit instruction of an attendant eliciting a specific cetacean behavior, and shall prevent the chasing or other harassment of the cetaceans.

(8) In cases where cetaceans used in an interactive session exhibit unsatisfactory, undesirable, or unsafe behaviors, including, but not limited to, charging, biting, mouthing, or sexual contact with humans, such cetaceans shall either be removed from the interactive area or the session shall be terminated. Written criteria shall be developed by each SWTD program, and shall be submitted to and approved by APHIS [FN11] regarding conditions and procedures for maintaining compliance with paragraph (e)(4) of this section; for the termination of a session when removal of a cetacean is not possible; and regarding criteria and protocols for handling program animal(s) exhibiting unsatisfactory, undesirable, or unsafe behaviors, including retraining time and techniques, and removal from the program and/or facility, if appropriate. The head trainer/behaviorist shall determine when operations will be terminated, and when they may resume. In the absence of the head trainer/behaviorist, the determination to terminate a session shall be made by the trainer/supervising attendant. Only the head trainer/behaviorist may determine when a session may be resumed.

11 Send to Administrator, c/o Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care, 4700 River Road Unit 84, Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1234.

(f) Recordkeeping.

(1) Each facility shall provide APHIS [FN12] with a description of its program at least 30 days prior to initiation of the program, or in the case of any program in place before September 4, 1998, not later than October 5, 1998. The description shall include at least the following:

12 See footnote 11 in § 3.111(e)(8).

(i) Identification of each cetacean in the program, by means of name and/or number, sex, age, and any other means the Administrator determines to be necessary to adequately identify the cetacean;

(ii) A description of the educational content and agenda of planned interactive sessions, and the anticipated average and maximum frequency and duration of encounters per cetacean per day;

(iii) The content and method of pre-encounter orientation, rules, and instructions, including restrictions on types of physical contact with the cetaceans;

(iv) A description of the SWTD facility, including the primary enclosure and other SWTD animal housing or holding enclosures at the facility;

(v) A description of the training, including actual or expected number of hours each cetacean has undergone or will undergo prior to participation in the program;

(vi) The resume of the licensee and/or manager, the head trainer/behaviorist, the trainer/supervising attendant, any other attendants, and the attending veterinarian;

(vii) The current behavior patterns and health of each cetacean, to be assessed and submitted by the attending veterinarian;

(viii) For facilities that employ a part-time attending veterinarian or consultant arrangements, a written program of veterinary care (APHIS form 7002), including protocols and schedules of professional visits; and

(ix) A detailed description of the monitoring program to be used to detect and identify changes in the behavior and health of the cetaceans.

(2) All SWTD programs shall comply in all respects with the regulations and standards set forth in parts 2 and 3 of this subchapter.

(3) Individual animal veterinary records, including all examinations, laboratory reports, treatments, and necropsy reports shall be kept at the SWTD site for at least 3 years and shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection.

(4) The following records shall be kept at the SWTD site for at least 3 years and shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection:

(i) Individual cetacean feeding records; and

(ii) Individual cetacean behavioral records.

(5) The following reports shall be kept at the SWTD site for at least 3 years and shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection:

(i) Statistical summaries of the number of minutes per day that each animal participated in an interactive session;

(ii) A statistical summary of the number of human participants per month in the SWTD program; and

(6) A description of any changes made in the SWTD program, which shall be submitted to APHIS [FN13] on a semi-annual basis.

13 See footnote 11 in § 3.111(e)(8).

(7) All incidents resulting in injury to either cetaceans or humans participating in an interactive session, which shall be reported to APHIS within 24 hours of the incident. [FN14] Within 7 days of any such incident, a written report shall be submitted to the Administrator. [FN15] The report shall provide a detailed description of the incident and shall establish a plan of action for the prevention of further occurrences.

14 Telephone numbers for APHIS, Animal Care, regional offices can be found in local telephone books.

15 See footnote 11 in § 3.111(e)(8).

(g) Veterinary care.

(1) The attending veterinarian shall conduct on-site evaluations of each cetacean at least once a month. The evaluation shall include a visual inspection of the animal; examination of the behavioral, feeding, and medical records of the animal; and a discussion of each animal with an animal care staff member familiar with the animal.

(2) The attending veterinarian shall observe an interactive swim session at the SWTD site at least once each month.

(3) The attending veterinarian shall conduct a complete physical examination of each cetacean at least once every 6 months. The examination shall include a profile of the cetacean, including the cetacean's identification (name and/or number, sex, and age), weight, [FN16] length, axillary girth, appetite, and behavior. The attending veterinarian shall also conduct a general examination to evaluate body condition, skin, eyes, mouth, blow hole and cardio- respiratory system, genitalia, and feces (gastrointestinal status). The examination shall also include a complete blood count and serum chemistry analysis. Fecal and blow hole smears shall be obtained for cytology and parasite evaluation.

16 Weight may be measured either by scale or calculated using the following formulae:

Females: Natural log of body mass = -8.44 + 1.34(natural log of girth) + 1.28(natural log of standard length).

Males: Natural log of body mass= -10.3 + 1.62(natural log of girth) + 1.38(natural log of standard length).

(4) The attending veterinarian, during the monthly site visit, shall record the nutritional and reproductive status of each cetacean (i.e., whether in an active breeding program, pregnant, or nursing).

(5) The attending veterinarian shall examine water quality records and provide a written assessment, to remain at the SWTD site for at least 3 years, of the overall water quality during the preceding month. Such records shall be made available to an APHIS official upon request during inspection.

(6) In the event that a cetacean dies, complete necropsy results, including all appropriate histopathology, shall be recorded in the cetacean's individual file and shall be made available to APHIS officials during facility inspections, or as requested by APHIS. The necropsy shall be performed within 48 hours of the cetacean's death, by a veterinarian experienced in marine mammal necropsies. If the necropsy is not to be performed within 3 hours of the discovery of the cetacean's death, the cetacean shall be refrigerated until necropsy. Written results of the necropsy shall be available in the cetacean's individual file within 7 days after death for gross pathology and within 45 days after death for histopathology.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 0579-0036 and 0579-0115)

[63 FR 47148, Sept. 4, 1998; 64 FR 15920, April 2, 1999]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.112 Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall not accept any marine mammal that is presented by any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government for shipment, in commerce, more than 4 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the primary conveyance on which it is to be transported, and that is not accompanied by a health certificate signed by the attending veterinarian stating that the animal was examined within the prior 10 days and found to be in acceptable health for transport: Provided, however, That the carrier or intermediate handler and any dealer, research facility, exhibitor, operator of an auction sale, or other person, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or any State or local government may mutually agree to extend the time of acceptance to not more than 6 hours if specific prior scheduling of the animal shipment to destination has been made.

(b) Any carrier or intermediate handler shall only accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal in a primary transport enclosure that conforms to the requirements in § 3.113 of this subpart: Provided, however, That any carrier or intermediate handler may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States having laboratory animal facilities or exhibiting animals or any licensed or registered dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate, signed by the consignor, stating that the primary transport enclosure complies with § 3.113 of this subpart, unless such primary transport enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and it is apparent that it cannot reasonably be expected to contain the marine mammal without causing suffering or injury to the marine mammal. A copy of any such certificate must accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate must include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number, age, and sex of animals in the primary transport enclosure(s);

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the--(number) primary transport enclosure(s) that are used to transport the animal(s) in this shipment complies (comply) with USDA standards for primary transport enclosures (9 CFR part 3).”); and

(4) The signature of the consignor, and date.

(c) Carriers or intermediate handlers whose facilities fail to maintain a temperature within the range of 7.2 °C (45 °F) to 23.9 °C (75 °F) allowed by § 3.117 of this subpart may accept for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal consigned by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States or of any State or local government, or by any person (including any licensee or registrant under the Act, as well as any private individual) if the consignor furnishes to the carrier or intermediate handler a certificate executed by the attending veterinarian on a specified date that is not more than 10 days prior to delivery of the animal for transportation in commerce, stating that the marine mammal is acclimated to a specific air temperature range lower or higher than those prescribed in §§ 3.117 and 3.118. A copy of the certificate must accompany the shipment to destination. The certificate must include at least the following information:

(1) Name and address of the consignor;

(2) The number, age, and sex of animals in the shipment;

(3) A certifying statement (e.g., “I hereby certify that the animal(s) in this shipment is (are), to the best of my knowledge, acclimated to an air temperature range of ______”); and

(4) The signature of the attending veterinarian and the date.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers must attempt to notify the consignee (receiving party) at least once in every 6-hour period following the arrival of any marine mammals at the animal holding area of the terminal cargo facility. The time, date, and method of each attempted notification and the final notification to the consignee and the name of the person notifying the consignee must be recorded on the copy of the shipping document retained by the carrier or intermediate handler and on a copy of the shipping document accompanying the animal shipment.

[44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979, as amended at 44 FR 63493, Nov. 2, 1979; 66 FR 254, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.113 Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals.

No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any marine mammal in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the following requirements:

(a) Primary enclosures that are used to transport marine mammals other than cetaceans and sirenians must:

(1) Be constructed from materials of sufficient structural strength to contain the marine mammals;

(2) Be constructed from material that is durable, nontoxic, and cannot be chewed and/or swallowed;

(3) Be able to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(4) Have interiors that are free from any protrusions or hazardous openings that could be injurious to the marine mammals contained within;

(5) Be constructed so that no parts of the contained marine mammals are exposed to the outside of the enclosures in any way that may cause injury to the animals or to persons who are nearby or who handle the enclosures;

(6) Have openings that provide access into the enclosures and are secured with locking devices of a type that cannot be accidentally opened;

(7) Have such openings located in a manner that makes them easily accessible at all times for emergency removal and potential treatment of any live marine mammal contained within;

(8) Have air inlets at heights that will provide cross ventilation at all levels (particularly when the marine mammals are in a prone position), are located on all four sides of the enclosures, and cover not less than 20 percent of the total surface area of each side of the enclosures;

(9) Have projecting rims or other devices placed on any ends and sides of the enclosures that have ventilation openings so that there is a minimum air circulation space of 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches) between the enclosures and any adjacent cargo or conveyance wall;

(10) Be constructed so as to provide sufficient air circulation space to maintain the temperature limits set forth in this subpart; and

(11) Be equipped with adequate handholds or other devices on the exterior of the enclosures to enable them to be lifted without unnecessary tilting and to ensure that the persons handling the enclosures will not come in contact with any marine mammal contained inside.

(b) Straps, slings, harnesses, or other devices used for body support or restraint, when transporting marine mammals such as cetaceans and sirenians must:

(1) Be designed so as not to prevent access to the marine mammals by attendants for the purpose of administering in-transit care;

(2) Be equipped with special padding to prevent trauma or injury at critical weight pressure points on the body of the marine mammals; and

(3) Be capable of keeping the animals from thrashing about and causing injury to themselves or their attendants, and yet be adequately designed so as not to cause injury to the animals.

(c) Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals must be large enough to assure that:

(1) In the case of pinnipeds, polar bears, and sea otters, each animal has sufficient space to turn about freely in a stance whereby all four feet or flippers are on the floor and the animal can sit in an upright position and lie in a natural position;

(2) In the case of cetaceans and sirenians, each animal has sufficient space for support of its body in slings, harnesses, or other supporting devices, if used (as prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section), without causing injury to such cetaceans or sirenians due to contact with the primary transport enclosure: Provided, however, That animals may be restricted in their movements according to professionally accepted standards when such freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the animals, their handlers, or other persons.

(d) Marine mammals transported in the same primary enclosure must be of the same species and maintained in compatible groups. Marine mammals that have not reached puberty may not be transported in the same primary enclosure with adult marine mammals other than their dams. Socially dependent animals (e.g., sibling, dam, and other members of a family group) must be allowed visual and olfactory contact whenever reasonable. Female marine mammals may not be transported in the same primary enclosure with any mature male marine mammals.

(e) Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals as provided in this section must have solid bottoms to prevent leakage in shipment and must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in § 3.107 of this subpart, if previously used. Within the primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, the animals will be maintained on sturdy, rigid, solid floors with adequate drainage.

(f) Primary enclosures used to transport marine mammals, except where such primary enclosures are permanently affixed in the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance, must be clearly marked on top (when present) and on at least one side, or on all sides whenever possible, with the words “Live Animal” or “Wild Animal” in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the container.

(g) Documents accompanying the shipment must be attached in an easily accessible manner to the outside of a primary enclosure that is part of such shipment or be in the possession of the shipping attendant.

(h) When a primary transport enclosure is permanently affixed within the animal cargo space of the primary conveyance so that the front opening is the only source of ventilation for such primary enclosure, the front opening must open directly to the outside or to an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the primary conveyance. Such front ventilation opening must be at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the primary enclosure and covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal.

[66 FR 255, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.114 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in transporting live marine mammals must be constructed in a manner that will protect the health and assure the safety and comfort of the marine mammals contained within at all times. All primary conveyances used must be sufficiently temperature-controlled to provide an appropriate environmental temperature for the species involved and to provide for the safety and comfort of the marine mammal, or other appropriate safeguards (such as, but not limited to, cooling the animal with cold water, adding ice to water-filled enclosures, and use of fans) must be employed to maintain the animal at an appropriate temperature.

(b) The animal cargo space must be constructed and maintained in a manner that will prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases in excess of that ordinarily contained in the passenger compartments.

(c) Marine mammals must only be placed in animal cargo spaces that have a supply of air sufficient for each live animal contained within. Primary transport enclosures must be positioned in the animal cargo spaces of primary conveyances in such a manner that each marine mammal contained within will have access to sufficient air.

(d) Primary transport enclosures must be positioned in primary conveyances in such a manner that, in an emergency, the live marine mammals can be removed from the conveyances as soon as possible.

(e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean.

(f) Live marine mammals must not knowingly be transported with any material, substance, or device that may be injurious to the health and well-being of the marine mammals unless proper precaution is taken to prevent such injury.

(g) Adequate lighting must be available for marine mammal attendants to properly inspect the animals at any time. If such lighting is not provided by the carrier, provisions must be made by the shipper to supply such lighting.

[66 FR 255, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements.

(a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable water within 4 hours of being placed in the primary transport enclosure for transport in commerce. Marine mammals must be provided water as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved to prevent dehydration, which would jeopardize the good health and well-being of the animals.

(b) Marine mammals being transported in commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or as determined by the attending veterinarian.

[66 FR 256, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.116 Care in transit.

(a) A licensed veterinarian, employee, and/or attendant of the shipper or receiver of any marine mammal being transported, in commerce, knowledgeable and experienced in the area of marine mammal care and transport, must accompany all marine mammals during periods of transportation to provide for their good health and well-being, to observe such marine mammals to determine whether they need veterinary care, and to obtain any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. Any transport of greater than 2 hours duration requires a transport plan approved by the attending veterinarian that will include the specification of the necessity of the presence of a veterinarian during the transport. If the attending veterinarian does not accompany the animal, communication with the veterinarian must be maintained in accordance with §§ 2.33(b)(3) and 2.40(b)(3) of this chapter.

(b) The following marine mammals may be transported in commerce only when the transport of such marine mammals has been determined to be appropriate by the attending veterinarian:

(1) A pregnant animal in the last half of pregnancy;

(2) A dependent unweaned young animal;

(3) A nursing mother with young; or

(4) An animal with a medical condition requiring veterinary care, that would be compromised by transport. The attending veterinarian must note on the accompanying health certificate the existence of any of the above conditions. The attending veterinarian must also determine whether a veterinarian should accompany such marine mammals during transport.

(c) Carriers must inform the crew as to the presence of the marine mammals on board the craft, inform the individual accompanying the marine mammals of any unexpected delays as soon as they become known, and accommodate, except as precluded by safety considerations, requests by the shipper or his agent to provide access to the animals or take other necessary actions for the welfare of the animals if a delay occurs.

(d) A sufficient number of employees or attendants of the shipper or receiver of cetaceans or sirenians being transported, in commerce, must provide for such cetaceans and sirenians during periods of transport by:

(1) Keeping the skin moist or preventing the drying of the skin by such methods as intermittent spraying of water or application of a nontoxic emollient;

(2) Assuring that the pectoral flippers are allowed freedom of movement at all times;

(3) Making adjustments in the position of the marine mammals when necessary to prevent necrosis of the skin at weight pressure points;

(4) Keeping the animal cooled and/or warmed sufficiently to prevent overheating, hypothermia, or temperature related stress; and

(5) Calming the marine mammals to avoid struggling, thrashing, and other unnecessary activity that may cause overheating or physical trauma.

(e) A sufficient number of employees or attendants of the shipper or receiver of pinnipeds or polar bears being transported, in commerce, must provide for such pinnipeds and polar bears during periods of transport by:

(1) Keeping the animal cooled and/or warmed sufficiently to prevent overheating, hypothermia, or temperature related stress; and

(2) Calming the marine mammals to avoid struggling, thrashing, and other unnecessary activity that may cause overheating or physical trauma.

(f) Sea otters must be transported in primary enclosures that contain false floors through which water and waste freely pass to keep the interior of the transport unit free from waste materials. Moisture must be provided by water sprayers or ice during transport.

(g) Marine mammals may be removed from their primary transport enclosures only by the attendants or other persons capable of handling such mammals safely.

[49 FR 26686, June 28, 1984; 66 FR 256, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.117 Terminal facilities.

Carriers and intermediate handlers must not commingle marine mammal shipments with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in § 3.107 of this subpart to minimize health and disease hazards. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests must be established and maintained for all animal holding areas. Any animal holding area containing marine mammals must be ventilated with fresh air or air circulated by means of fans, blowers, or an air conditioning system so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or fans or blowers or air conditioning must be used for any animal holding area containing marine mammals when the air temperature within such animal holding area is 23.9 °C (75 °F) or higher. The air temperature around any marine mammal in any animal holding area must not be allowed to fall below 7.2 °C (45 °F). The air temperature around any polar bear must not be allowed to exceed 29.5 °C (85 °F) at any time and no polar bear may be subjected to surrounding air temperatures that exceed 23.9 °C (75 °F) for more than 4 hours at any time. The ambient temperature must be measured in the animal holding area upon arrival of the shipment by the attendant, carrier, or intermediate handler. The ambient temperature must be measured halfway up the outside of the primary transport enclosure at a distance from the external wall of the primary transport enclosure not to exceed 0.91 meters (3 feet).

[49 FR 26686, June 28, 1984; 66 FR 256, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

§ 3.118 Handling.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers moving marine mammals from the animal holding area of the terminal facility to the primary conveyance or from the primary conveyance to the animal holding area of the terminal facility must provide the following:

(1) Movement of animals as expeditiously as possible.

(2) Shelter from overheating and direct sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating, sunburn, or discomfort, sufficient shade must be provided to protect the marine mammals. Marine mammals must not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures that exceed 23.9 °C (75 °F) unless accompanied by an acclimation certificate in accordance with § 3.112 of this subpart. The temperature must be measured and read within or immediately adjacent to the primary transport enclosure.

(3) Shelter from cold weather. Marine mammals must be provided with species appropriate protection against cold weather, and such marine mammals must not be subjected to surrounding air temperatures that fall below 7.2 °C (45 °F) unless accompanied by an acclimation certificate in accordance with § 3.112 of this subpart. The temperature must be measured and read within or immediately adjacent to the primary transport enclosure.

(b) Care must be exercised to avoid handling of the primary transport enclosure in a manner that may cause physical harm or distress to the marine mammal contained within.

(c) Enclosures used to transport any marine mammal must not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted and must not be stacked unless properly secured.

[49 FR 26686, June 28, 1984; 66 FR 257, Jan. 3, 2001; 66 FR 8744, Feb. 2, 2001]

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 44 FR 36874, June 22, 1979; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131-2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

 

 



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