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Code of Federal Regulations. Title 9. Animals and Animal Products. Chapter I. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture. Subchapter A. Animal Welfare. Part 3. Standards. Subpart D. Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates. Facilities and Operating Standards



Country of Origin: United States

Agency of Origin: Department of Agriculture, APHIS

National Citation: 9 CFR 3.75 - 3.92



Last checked by Web Center Staff: 07/2013


Summary:  

This portion of the AWA regulations contains the humane care provisions for non-human primates. Included are requirements for housing facilities, primary enclosures, provisions for psychological well-being, feeding, watering, sanitization, employee requirements, and transportation standards.


Material in Full:

§ 3.75 Housing facilities, general.

§ 3.76 Indoor housing facilities.

§ 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities.

§ 3.78 Outdoor housing facilities.

§ 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

§ 3.80 Primary enclosures.

§ 3.81 Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being.

§ 3.82 Feeding.

§ 3.83 Watering.

§ 3.84 Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

§ 3.85 Employees.

§ 3.86 Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

§ 3.87 Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

§ 3.88 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

§ 3.89 Food and water requirements.

§ 3.90 Care in transit.

§ 3.91 Terminal facilities.

§ 3.92 Handling.


 


§ 3.75 Housing facilities, general.

(a) Structure: construction. Housing facilities for nonhuman primates must be designed and constructed so that they are structurally sound for the species of nonhuman primates housed in them. They must be kept in good repair, and they must protect the animals from injury, contain the animals securely, and restrict other animals from entering.

(b) Condition and site. Housing facilities and areas used for storing animal food or bedding must be free of any accumulation of trash, waste material, junk, weeds, and other discarded materials. Animal areas inside of housing facilities must be kept neat and free of clutter, including equipment, furniture, or stored material, but may contain materials actually used and necessary for cleaning the area, and fixtures and equipment necessary for proper husbandry practices and research needs. Housing facilities other than those maintained by research facilities and Federal research facilities must be physically separated from any other businesses. If a housing facility is located on the same premises as any other businesses, it must be physically separated from the other businesses so that animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons, are prevented from entering it.

(c) Surfaces--

(1) General requirements. The surfaces of housing facilities--including perches, shelves, swings, boxes, houses, dens, and other furniture-type fixtures or objects within the facility--must be constructed in a manner and made of materials that allow them to be readily cleaned and sanitized, or removed or replaced when worn or soiled. Furniture-type fixtures or objects must be sturdily constructed and must be strong enough to provide for the safe activity and welfare of nonhuman primates. Floors may be made of dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or other similar material that can be readily cleaned, or can be removed or replaced whenever cleaning does not eliminate odors, diseases, pests, insects, or vermin.

Any surfaces that come in contact with nonhuman primates must:

(i) Be free of excessive rust that prevents the required cleaning and sanitization, or that affects the structural strength of the surface; and

(ii) Be free of jagged edges or sharp points that might injure the animals.

(2) Maintenance and replacement of surfaces. All surfaces must be maintained on a regular basis. Surfaces of housing facilities--including houses, dens, and other furniture-type fixtures and objects within the facility--that cannot be readily cleaned and sanitized, must be replaced when worn or soiled.

(3) Cleaning. Hard surfaces with which nonhuman primates come in contact must be spot-cleaned daily and sanitized in accordance with § 3.84 of this subpart to prevent accumulation of excreta or disease hazards. If the species scent mark, the surfaces must be sanitized or replaced at regular intervals as determined by the attending veterinarian in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. Floors made of dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or other similar material, and planted enclosures must be raked or spot-cleaned with sufficient frequency to ensure all animals the freedom to avoid contact with excreta. Contaminated material must be removed or replaced whenever raking and spot cleaning does not eliminate odors, diseases, insects, pests, or vermin infestation. All other surfaces of housing facilities must be cleaned and sanitized when necessary to satisfy generally accepted husbandry standards and practices. Sanitization may be done by any of the methods provided in § 3.84(b)(3) of this subpart for primary enclosures.

(d) Water and electric power. The housing facility must have reliable electric power adequate for heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting, and for carrying out other husbandry requirements in accordance with the regulations in this subpart. The housing facility must provide running potable water for the nonhuman primates' drinking needs. It must be adequate for cleaning and for carrying out other husbandry requirements.

(e) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding must be stored in a manner that protects the supplies from spoilage, contamination, and vermin infestation. The supplies must be stored off the floor and away from the walls, to allow cleaning underneath and around the supplies. Food requiring refrigeration must be stored accordingly, and all food must be stored in a manner that prevents contamination and deterioration of its nutritive value. Only the food and bedding currently being used may be kept in animal areas, and when not in actual use, open food and bedding supplies must be kept in leakproof containers with tightly fitting lids to prevent spoilage and contamination. Substances that are toxic to the nonhuman primates but that are required for normal husbandry practices must not be stored in food storage and preparation areas, but may be stored in cabinets in the animal areas.

(f) Drainage and waste disposal. Housing facility operators must provide for regular and frequent collection, removal, and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, debris, garbage, water, and any other fluids and wastes, in a manner that minimizes contamination and disease risk. Housing facilities must be equipped with disposal facilities and drainage systems that are constructed and operated so that animal wastes and water are rapidly eliminated and the animals stay dry. Disposal and drainage systems must minimize vermin and pest infestation, insects, odors, and disease hazards. All drains must be properly constructed, installed, and maintained. If closed drainage systems are used, they must be equipped with traps and prevent the backflow of gases and the backup of sewage onto the floor. If the facility uses sump ponds, settlement ponds, or other similar systems for drainage and animal waste disposal, the system must be located far enough away from the animal area of the housing facility to prevent odors, diseases, insects, pests, and vermin infestation. If drip or constant flow watering devices are used to provide water to the animals, excess water must be rapidly drained out of the animal areas by gutters or pipes so that the animals stay dry. Standing puddles of water in animal areas must be mopped up or drained so that the animals remain dry. Trash containers in housing facilities and in food storage and food preparation areas must be leakproof and must have tightly fitted lids on them at all times. Dead animals, animal parts, and animal waste must not be kept in food storage or food preparation areas, food freezers, food refrigerators, and animal areas.

(g) Washrooms and sinks. Washing facilities, such as washrooms, basins, sinks, or showers must be provided for animal caretakers and must be readily accessible.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.76 Indoor housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect nonhuman primates from temperature extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the facility must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present. The ambient temperature must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities must be sufficiently ventilated at all times when nonhuman primates are present to provide for their health and well-being and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher. The relative humidity maintained must be at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the animals housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the nonhuman primates from temperature extremes, and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the sheltered part of the facility must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, unless temperatures above 85 °F (29.5 °C) are approved by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted husbandry practices. The ambient temperature must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(b) Ventilation. The sheltered part of sheltered animal facilities must be sufficiently ventilated at all times to provide for the health and well-being of nonhuman primates and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher. The relative humidity maintained must be at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Lighting. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light.

(d) Shelter from the elements. Sheltered housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. They must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur.

(e) Capacity: multiple shelters. Both the sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities and any other necessary shelter from the elements must be sufficiently large to provide protection comfortably to each nonhuman primate housed in the facility. If aggressive or dominant animals are housed in the facility with other animals, there must be multiple shelters or other means to ensure that each nonhuman primate has access to shelter.

(f) Perimeter fence. On and after February 15, 1994, the outdoor area of a sheltered housing facility must be enclosed by a fence that is of sufficient height to keep unwanted species out. Fences less than 6 feet high must be approved by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects nonhuman primates by restricting unauthorized humans, and animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons from going through it or under it and having contact with the nonhuman primates. It must be of sufficient distance from the outside wall or fence of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved by the Administrator. A perimeter fence is not required if:

(1) The outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of a sturdy, durable material such as concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts contact with or entry by humans and animals that are outside the sheltered housing facility; or

(2) The housing facility is surrounded by a natural barrier that restricts the nonhuman primates to the housing facility and protects them from contact with unauthorized humans and animals that are outside the sheltered housing facility, and the Administrator gives written permission.

(g) Public barriers. Fixed public exhibits housing nonhuman primates, such as zoos, must have a barrier between the primary enclosure and the public at any time the public is present, that restricts physical contact between the public and the nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primates used in trained animal acts or in uncaged public exhibits must be under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times when the public is present. Trained nonhuman primates may be permitted physical contact with the public, as allowed under § 2.131, but only if they are under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times during the contact.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.


AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.78 Outdoor housing facilities.

(a) Acclimation. Only nonhuman primates that are acclimated, as determined by the attending veterinarian, to the prevailing temperature and humidity at the outdoor housing facility during the time of year they are at the facility, and that can tolerate the range of temperatures and climatic conditions known to occur at the facility at that time of year without stress or discomfort, may be kept in outdoor facilities.

(b) Shelter from the elements. Outdoor housing facilities for nonhuman primates must provide adequate shelter from the elements at all times. It must provide protection from the sun, rain, snow, wind, and cold, and from any weather conditions that may occur. The shelter must safely provide heat to the nonhuman primates to prevent the ambient temperature from falling below 45 °F (7.2 °C), except as directed by the attending veterinarian and in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(c) Capacity: multiple shelters. The shelter must be sufficiently large to comfortably provide protection for each nonhuman primate housed in the facility. If aggressive or dominant animals are housed in the facility with other animals there must be multiple shelters, or other means to ensure protection for each nonhuman primate housed in the facility.

(d) Perimeter fence. On and after February 15, 1994, an outdoor housing facility must be enclosed by a fence that is of sufficient height to keep unwanted species out. Fences less than 6 feet high must be approved by the Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects nonhuman primates by restricting unauthorized humans, and animals the size of dogs, skunks, and raccoons from going through it or under it and having contact with the nonhuman primates. It must be of sufficient distance from the outside wall or fence of the primary enclosure to prevent physical contact between animals inside the enclosure and outside the perimeter fence. Such fences less than 3 feet in distance from the primary enclosure must be approved by the Administrator. A perimeter fence is not required if:

(1) The outside walls of the primary enclosure are made of a sturdy, durable material such as concrete, wood, plastic, metal, or glass, and are high enough and constructed in a manner that restricts contact with or entry by humans and animals that are outside the housing facility; or

(2) The housing facility is surrounded by a natural barrier that restricts the nonhuman primates to the housing facility and protects them from contact with unauthorized humans and animals that are outside the housing facility, and the Administrator gives written permission.

(e) Public barriers. Fixed public exhibits housing nonhuman primates, such as zoos, must have a barrier between the primary enclosure and the public at any time the public is present, in order to restrict physical contact between the public and the nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primates used in trained animal acts or in uncaged public exhibits must be under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times when the public is present. Trained nonhuman primates may be allowed physical contact with the public, but only if they are under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times during the contact.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

(a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect nonhuman primates from temperature extremes and to provide for their health and well-being. The ambient temperature in the traveling housing facility must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present, and must not rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present. The ambient temperature must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, as directed by the attending veterinarian, and in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(b) Ventilation. Traveling housing facilities must be sufficiently ventilated at all times when nonhuman primates are present to provide for the health and well-being of nonhuman primates and to minimize odors, drafts, ammonia levels, moisture condensation, and exhaust fumes. Ventilation must be provided by means of windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature in the traveling housing facility is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher.

(c) Lighting. Mobile or traveling housing facilities must be lighted well enough to permit routine inspection and cleaning of the facility, and observation of the nonhuman primates. Animal areas must be provided a regular diurnal lighting cycle of either natural or artificial light. Lighting must be uniformly diffused throughout animal facilities and provide sufficient illumination to aid in maintaining good housekeeping practices, adequate cleaning, adequate inspection of animals, and for the well-being of the animals. Primary enclosures must be placed in the housing facility so as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive light.

(d) Public barriers. There must be a barrier between a mobile or traveling housing facility and the public at any time the public is present, in order to restrict physical contact between the nonhuman primates and the public. Nonhuman primates used in traveling exhibits, trained animal acts, or in uncaged public exhibits must be under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times when the public is present. Trained nonhuman primates may be allowed physical contact with the public, but only if they are under the direct control and supervision of an experienced handler or trainer at all times during the contact.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.80 Primary enclosures.

Primary enclosures for nonhuman primates must meet the following minimum requirements:

(a) General requirements.

(1) Primary enclosures must be designed and constructed of suitable materials so that they are structurally sound for the species of nonhuman primates contained in them. They must be kept in good repair.

(2) Primary enclosures must be constructed and maintained so that they:

(i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the nonhuman primates;

(ii) Protect the nonhuman primates from injury;

(iii) Contain the nonhuman primates securely and prevent accidental opening of the enclosure, including opening by the animal;

(iv) Keep other unwanted animals from entering the enclosure or having physical contact with the nonhuman primates;

(v) Enable the nonhuman primates to remain dry and clean;

(vi) Provide shelter and protection from extreme temperatures and weather conditions that may be uncomfortable or hazardous to the species of nonhuman primate contained;

(vii) Provide sufficient shade to shelter all the nonhuman primates housed in the primary enclosure at one time;

(viii) Provide the nonhuman primates with easy and convenient access to clean food and water;

(ix) Enable all surfaces in contact with nonhuman primates to be readily cleaned and sanitized in accordance with § 3.84(b)(3) of this subpart, or replaced when worn or soiled;

(x) Have floors that are constructed in a manner that protects the nonhuman primates from injuring themselves; and

(xi) Provide sufficient space for the nonhuman primates to make normal postural adjustments with freedom of movement.

(b) Minimum space requirements. Primary enclosures must meet the minimum space requirements provided in this subpart. These minimum space requirements must be met even if perches, ledges, swings, or other suspended fixtures are placed in the enclosure. Low perches and ledges that do not allow the space underneath them to be comfortably occupied by the animal will be counted as part of the floor space.

(1) Prior to February 15, 1994:

(i) Primary enclosures must be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each nonhuman primate to make normal postural adjustments with adequate freedom of movement; and

(ii) Each nonhuman primate housed in a primary enclosure must be provided with a minimum floor space equal to an area at least three times the area occupied by the primate when standing on four feet.

(2) On and after February 15, 1994:

(i) The minimum space that must be provided to each nonhuman primate, whether housed individually or with other nonhuman primates, will be determined by the typical weight of animals of its species, except for brachiating species and great apes [FN3] and will be calculated by using the following table: [FN4]

3 The different species of nonhuman primates are divided into six weight groups for determining minimum space requirements, except that all brachiating species of any weight are grouped together since they require additional space to engage in species-typical behavior. The grouping provided is based upon the typical weight for various species and not on changes associated with obesity, aging, or pregnancy. These conditions will not be considered in determining a nonhuman primate's weight group unless the animal is obviously unable to make normal postural adjustments and movements within the primary enclosure. Different species of prosimians vary in weight and should be grouped with their appropriate weight group. They have not been included in the weight table since different species typically fall into different weight groups. Infants and juveniles of certain species are substantially lower in weight than adults of those species and require the minimum space requirements of lighter weight species, unless the animal is obviously unable to make normal postural adjustments and movements within the primary enclosure.


4 Examples of the kinds of nonhuman primates typically included in each age group are:

Group 1--marmosets, tamarins, and infants (less than 6 months of age) of various species.

Group 2--capuchins, squirrel monkeys and similar size species, and juveniles (6 months to 3 years of age) of various species.

Group 3--macaques and African species.

Group 4--male macaques and large African species.

Group 5--baboons and nonbrachiating species larger than 33.0 lbs. (15 kg.).

Group 6--great apes over 55.0 lbs. (25 kg.), except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, and brachiating species.

Group
Weight
Floor area/animal
Height
 
lbs.
(kg.)
ft.2
(m 2 )
in.
(cm.)
1
under 2.2
(under 1)
1.6
(0.15)
20
(50.8)
2
2.2-6.6
(1-3)
3.0
(0.28)
30
(7 6.2)
3
6.6-22.0
(3-10)
4.3
(0.40)
30
(76.2)
4
22.0-33.0
(10-15)
6.0
(0.56)
32
(81.28)
5
33.0-55.0
(15-25)
8.0
(0.74)
36
(91.44)
6
over 55.0
(over 25)
25.1
(2.33)
84
(213.36)

 

(ii) Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities, including Federal research facilities, must provide great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg) an additional volume of space in excess of that required for Group 6 animals as set forth in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, to allow for normal postural adjustments.

(iii) In the case of research facilities, any exemption from these standards must be required by a research proposal or in the judgment of the attending veterinarian and must be approved by the Committee. In the case of dealers and exhibitors, any exemption from these standards must be required in the judgment of the attending veterinarian and approved by the Administrator.

(iv) When more than one nonhuman primate is housed in a primary enclosure, the minimum space requirement for the enclosure is the sum of the minimum floor area space required for each individual nonhuman primate in the table in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, and the minimum height requirement for the largest nonhuman primate housed in the enclosure. Provided however, that mothers with infants less than 6 months of age may be maintained together in primary enclosures that meet the floor area space and height requirements of the mother.

(c) Innovative primary enclosures not precisely meeting the floor area and height requirements provided in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section, but that do provide nonhuman primates with a sufficient volume of space and the opportunity to express species-typical behavior, may be used at research facilities when approved by the Committee, and by dealers and exhibitors when approved by the Administrator.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.
 


§ 3.81 Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being.

Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must develop, document, and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. The plan must be in accordance with the currently accepted professional standards as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. This plan must be made available to APHIS upon request, and, in the case of research facilities, to officials of any pertinent funding agency. The plan, at a minimum, must address each of the following:

(a) Social grouping. The environment enhancement plan must include specific provisions to address the social needs of nonhuman primates of species known to exist in social groups in nature. Such specific provisions must be in accordance with currently accepted professional standards, as cited in appropriate professional journals or reference guides, and as directed by the attending veterinarian. The plan may provide for the following exceptions:

(1) If a nonhuman primate exhibits vicious or overly aggressive behavior, or is debilitated as a result of age or other conditions (e.g., arthritis), it should be housed separately;

(2) Nonhuman primates that have or are suspected of having a contagious disease must be isolated from healthy animals in the colony as directed by the attending veterinarian. When an entire group or room of nonhuman primates is known to have or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent, the group may be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.

(3) Nonhuman primates may not be housed with other species of primates or animals unless they are compatible, do not prevent access to food, water, or shelter by individual animals, and are not known to be hazardous to the health and well-being of each other. Compatibility of nonhuman primates must be determined in accordance with generally accepted professional practices and actual observations, as directed by the attending veterinarian, to ensure that the nonhuman primates are in fact compatible. Individually housed nonhuman primates must be able to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species unless the attending veterinarian determines that it would endanger their health, safety, or well-being.

(b) Environmental enrichment. The physical environment in the primary enclosures must be enriched by providing means of expressing noninjurious species-typical activities. Species differences should be considered when determining the type or methods of enrichment. Examples of environmental enrichments include providing perches, swings, mirrors, and other increased cage complexities; providing objects to manipulate; varied food items; using foraging or task-oriented feeding methods; and providing interaction with the care giver or other familiar and knowledgeable person consistent with personnel safety precautions.

(c) Special considerations. Certain nonhuman primates must be provided special attention regarding enhancement of their environment, based on the needs of the individual species and in accordance with the instructions of the attending veterinarian. Nonhuman primates requiring special attention are the following:

(1) Infants and young juveniles;

(2) Those that show signs of being in psychological distress through behavior or appearance;

(3) Those used in research for which the Committee-approved protocol requires restricted activity;

(4) Individually housed nonhuman primates that are unable to see and hear nonhuman primates of their own or compatible species; and

(5) Great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg). Dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must include in the environment enhancement plan special provisions for great apes weighing over 110 lbs. (50 kg), including additional opportunities to express species-typical behavior.

(d) Restraint devices. Nonhuman primates must not be maintained in restraint devices unless required for health reasons as determined by the attending veterinarian or by a research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. Maintenance under such restraint must be for the shortest period possible. In instances where long-term (more than 12 hours) restraint is required, the nonhuman primate must be provided the opportunity daily for unrestrained activity for at least one continuous hour during the period of restraint, unless continuous restraint is required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities.

(e) Exemptions.

(1) The attending veterinarian may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in the environment enhancement plan because of its health or condition, or in consideration of its well-being. The basis of the exemption must be recorded by the attending veterinarian for each exempted nonhuman primate. Unless the basis for the exemption is a permanent condition, the exemption must be reviewed at least every 30 days by the attending veterinarian.

(2) For a research facility, the Committee may exempt an individual nonhuman primate from participation in some or all of the otherwise required environment enhancement plans for scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal. The basis of the exemption shall be documented in the approved proposal and must be reviewed at appropriate intervals as determined by the Committee, but not less than annually.

(3) Records of any exemptions must be maintained by the dealer, exhibitor, or research facility and must be made available to USDA officials or officials of any pertinent funding Federal agency upon request.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


Animal Health and Husbandry Standards

§ 3.82 Feeding.

(a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be appropriate for the species, size, age, and condition of the animal, and for the conditions in which the nonhuman primate is maintained, according to generally accepted professional and husbandry practices and nutritional standards. The food must be clean, wholesome, and palatable to the animals. It must be of sufficient quantity and have sufficient nutritive value to maintain a healthful condition and weight range of the animal and to meet its normal daily nutritional requirements.

(b) Nonhuman primates must be fed at least once each day except as otherwise might be required to provide adequate veterinary care. Infant and juvenile nonhuman primates must be fed as often as necessary in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices and nutritional standards, based upon the animals' age and condition.

(c) Food and food receptacles, if used, must be readily accessible to all the nonhuman primates being fed. If members of dominant nonhuman primate or other species are fed together with other nonhuman primates, multiple feeding sites must be provided. The animals must be observed to determine that all receive a sufficient quantity of food.

(d) Food and food receptacles, if used, must be located so as to minimize any risk of contamination by excreta and pests. Food receptacles must be kept clean and must be sanitized in accordance with the procedures listed in § 3.84(b)(3) of this subpart at least once every 2 weeks. Used food receptacles must be sanitized before they can be used to provide food to a different nonhuman primate or social grouping of nonhuman primates. Measures must be taken to ensure there is no molding, deterioration, contamination, or caking or wetting of food placed in self-feeders.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.83 Watering.

Potable water must be provided in sufficient quantity to every nonhuman primate housed at the facility. If potable water is not continually available to the nonhuman primates, it must be offered to them as often as necessary to ensure their health and well-being, but no less than twice daily for at least l hour each time, unless otherwise required by the attending veterinarian, or as required by the research proposal approved by the Committee at research facilities. Water receptacles must be kept clean and sanitized in accordance with methods provided in § 3.84(b)(3) of this subpart at least once every 2 weeks or as often as necessary to keep them clean and free from contamination. Used water receptacles must be sanitized before they can be used to provide water to a different nonhuman primate or social grouping of nonhuman primates.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.84 Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

(a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must be removed from inside each indoor primary enclosure daily and from underneath them as often as necessary to prevent an excessive accumulation of feces and food waste, to prevent the nonhuman primates from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors, floors with absorbent bedding, and planted areas in primary enclosures must be spot-cleaned with sufficient frequency to ensure all animals the freedom to avoid contact with excreta, or as often as necessary to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. When steam or water is used to clean the primary enclosure, whether by hosing, flushing, or other methods, nonhuman primates must be removed, unless the enclosure is large enough to ensure the animals will not be harmed, wetted, or distressed in the process. Perches, bars, and shelves must be kept clean and replaced when worn. If the species of the nonhuman primates housed in the primary enclosure engages in scent marking, hard surfaces in the primary enclosure must be spot-cleaned daily.

(b) Sanitization of primary enclosures and food and water receptacles.

(1) A used primary enclosure must be sanitized in accordance with this section before it can be used to house another nonhuman primate or group of nonhuman primates.

(2) Indoor primary enclosures must be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks and as often as necessary to prevent an excessive accumulation of dirt, debris, waste, food waste, excreta, or disease hazard, using one of the methods prescribed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. However, if the species of nonhuman primates housed in the primary enclosure engages in scent marking, the primary enclosure must be sanitized at regular intervals determined in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices.

(3) Hard surfaces of primary enclosures and food and water receptacles must be sanitized using one of the following methods:

(i) Live steam under pressure;

(ii) Washing with hot water (at least 180 °F (82.2 °C)) and soap or detergent, such as in a mechanical cage washer;

(iii) Washing all soiled surfaces with appropriate detergent solutions or disinfectants, or by using a combination detergent/disinfectant product that accomplishes the same purpose, with a thorough cleaning of the surfaces to remove organic material, so as to remove all organic material and mineral buildup, and to provide sanitization followed by a clean water rinse.

(4) Primary enclosures containing material that cannot be sanitized using the methods provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, such as sand, gravel, dirt, absorbent bedding, grass, or planted areas, must be sanitized by removing the contaminated material as necessary to prevent odors, diseases, pests, insects, and vermin infestation.

(c) Housekeeping for premises. Premises where housing facilities are located, including buildings and surrounding grounds, must be kept clean and in good repair in order to protect the nonhuman primates from injury, to facilitate the husbandry practices required in this subpart, and to reduce or eliminate breeding and living areas for rodents, pests, and vermin. Premises must be kept free of accumulations of trash, junk, waste, and discarded matter. Weeds, grass, and bushes must be controlled so as to facilitate cleaning of the premises and pest control.

(d) Pest control. An effective program for control of insects, external parasites affecting nonhuman primates, and birds and mammals that are pests, must be established and maintained so as to promote the health and well-being of the animals and reduce contamination by pests in animal areas.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.


AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.85 Employees.

Every person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) maintaining nonhuman primates must have enough employees to carry out the level of husbandry practices and care required in this subpart. The employees who provide husbandry practices and care, or handle nonhuman primates, must be trained and supervised by an individual who has the knowledge, background, and experience in proper husbandry and care of nonhuman primates to supervise others.

The employer must be certain that the supervisor can perform to these standards.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


Transportation Standards

§ 3.86 Consignments to carriers and intermediate handlers.

(a) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce more than 4 hours before the scheduled departure time of the primary conveyance on which the animal is to be transported. However, a carrier or intermediate handler may agree with anyone consigning a nonhuman primate to extend this time by up to 2 hours.

(b) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless they are provided with the name, address, telephone number, and telex number, if applicable, of the consignee.

(c) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless the consignor certifies in writing to the carrier or intermediate handler that the nonhuman primate was offered food and water during the 4 hours before delivery to the carrier or intermediate handler. The certification must be securely attached to the outside of the primary enclosure in a manner that makes it easily noticed and read. Instructions for no food or water are not acceptable unless directed by the attending veterinarian. Instructions must be in compliance with § 3.89 of this subpart. The certification must include the following information for each nonhuman primate:

(1) The consignor's name and address;

(2) The species of nonhuman primate;

(3) The time and date the animal was last fed and watered and the specific instructions for the next feeding(s) and watering(s) for a 24–hour period; and

(4) The consignor's signature and the date and time the certification was signed.

(d) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless the primary enclosure meets the requirements of § 3.87 of this subpart. A carrier or intermediate handler must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport if the primary enclosure is obviously defective or damaged and cannot reasonably be expected to safely and comfortably contain the nonhuman primate without suffering or injury.

(e) Carriers and intermediate handlers must not accept a nonhuman primate for transport in commerce unless their animal holding area facilities meet the minimum temperature requirements provided in §§ 3.91 and 3.92 of this subpart, or unless the consignor provides them with a certificate signed by a veterinarian and dated no more than 10 days before delivery of the animal to the carrier or intermediate handler for transport in commerce, certifying that the animal is acclimated to temperatures lower than those that are required in §§ 3.91 and 3.92 of this subpart. Even if the carrier or intermediate handler receives this certification, the temperatures the nonhuman primate is exposed to while in the carrier's or intermediate handler's custody must not be lower than the minimum temperature specified by the veterinarian in accordance with paragraph (e)(4) of this section, and must be reasonably within the generally and professionally accepted temperature range for the nonhuman primate, as determined by the veterinarian, considering its age, condition, and species. A copy of the certification must accompany the nonhuman primate to its destination and must include the following information for each primary enclosure:

(1) The consignor's name and address;

(2) The number of nonhuman primates contained in the primary enclosure;

(3) The species of nonhuman primate contained in the primary enclosure;

(4) A statement by a veterinarian that to the best of his or her knowledge, each of the nonhuman primates contained in the primary enclosure is acclimated to air temperatures lower than 50 °F (10 °C), but not lower than a minimum temperature specified on the certificate based on the generally and professionally accepted temperature range for the nonhuman primate, considering its age, condition, and species; and

(5) The veterinarian's signature and the date the certification was signed.

(f) When a primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate has arrived at the animal holding area of a terminal facility after transport, the carrier or intermediate handler must attempt to notify the consignee upon arrival and at least once in every 6–hour period after arrival. The time, date, and method of all attempted notifications and the actual notification of the consignee, and the name of the person who notifies or attempts to notify the consignee must be written either on the carrier's or intermediate handler's copy of the shipping document or on the copy that accompanies the primary enclosure. If the consignee cannot be notified within 24 hours after the nonhuman primate has arrived at the terminal facility, the carrier or intermediate handler must return the animal to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. If the consignee is notified of the arrival and does not take physical delivery of the nonhuman primate within 48 hours after arrival of the nonhuman primate, the carrier or intermediate handler must return the animal to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. The carrier or intermediate handler must continue to provide proper care, feeding, and housing to the nonhuman primate, and maintain the nonhuman primate in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices until the consignee accepts delivery of the nonhuman primate or until it is returned to the consignor or to whomever the consignor designates. The carrier or intermediate handler must obligate the consignor to reimburse the carrier or intermediate handler for the cost of return transportation and care.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.87 Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not transport or deliver for transport in commerce a nonhuman primate unless it is contained in a primary enclosure, such as a compartment, transport cage, carton, or crate, and the following requirements are met:

(a) Construction of primary enclosures. Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates may be connected or attached to each other and must be constructed so that:

(1) The primary enclosure is strong enough to contain the nonhuman primate securely and comfortably and to withstand the normal rigors of transportation;

(2) The interior of the enclosure has no sharp points or edges and no protrusions that could injure the animal contained in it;

(3) The nonhuman primate is at all times securely contained within the enclosure and cannot put any part of its body outside the enclosure in a way that could result in injury to the animal, or to persons or animals nearby;

(4) The nonhuman primate can be easily and quickly removed from the enclosure in an emergency;

(5) The doors or other closures that provide access into the enclosure are secured with animal-proof devices that prevent accidental opening of the enclosure, including opening by the nonhuman primate;

(6) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, adequate devices such as handles or handholds are provided on its exterior, and enable the enclosure to be lifted without tilting it, and ensure that anyone handling the enclosure will not come into physical contact with the animal contained inside;

(7) Any material, treatment, paint, preservative, or other chemical used in or on the enclosure is nontoxic to the animal and not harmful to the health or well-being of the animal;

(8) Proper ventilation is provided to the nonhuman primate in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section;

(9) Ventilation openings are covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces; and

(10) The primary enclosure has a solid, leak-proof bottom, or a removable, leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or wire mesh floor that prevents seepage of waste products, such as excreta and body fluids, outside of the enclosure. If a slatted or wire mesh floor is used in the enclosure, it must be designed and constructed so that the animal cannot put any part of its body between the slats or through the holes in the mesh. It must contain enough previously unused litter to absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and nontoxic to the nonhuman primate and is appropriate for the species transported in the primary enclosure.

(b) Cleaning of primary enclosures. A primary enclosure used to hold or transport nonhuman primates in commerce must be cleaned and sanitized before each use in accordance with the methods provided in § 3.84(b)(3) of this subpart.

(c) Ventilation.

(1) If the primary enclosure is movable, ventilation openings must be constructed in one of the following ways:

(i) If ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, the openings on each wall must be at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each such wall and be located above the midline of the enclosure; or

(ii) If ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the primary enclosure, the openings on every wall must be at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each such wall and be located above the midline of the enclosure.

(2) Unless the primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the conveyance, projecting rims or similar devices must be located on the exterior of each enclosure wall having a ventilation opening, in order to prevent obstruction of the openings. The projecting rims or similar devices must be large enough to provide a minimum air circulation space of 0.75 inches (1.9 centimeters) between the primary enclosure and anything the enclosure is placed against.

(3) If a primary enclosure is permanently affixed to the primary conveyance so that there is only a front ventilation opening for the enclosure, the primary enclosure must be affixed to the primary conveyance in such a way that the front ventilation opening cannot be blocked, and the front ventilation opening must open directly to an unobstructed aisle or passageway inside of the conveyance. The ventilation opening must be at least 90 percent of the total area of the front wall of the enclosure, and must be covered with bars, wire mesh, or smooth expanded metal having air spaces.

(d) Compatibility.

(1) Only one live nonhuman primate may be transported in a primary enclosure, except as follows:

(i) A mother and her nursing infant may be transported together;

(ii) An established male-female pair or family group may be transported together, except that a female in estrus must not be transported with a male nonhuman primate;

(iii) A compatible pair of juveniles of the same species that have not reached puberty may be transported together.

(2) Nonhuman primates of different species must not be transported in adjacent or connecting primary enclosures.

(e) Space requirements. Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates must be large enough so that each animal contained in the primary enclosure has enough space to turn around freely in a normal manner and to sit in an upright, hands down position without its head touching the top of the enclosure. However, certain larger species may be restricted in their movements, in accordance with professionally accepted standards of care, when greater freedom of movement would be dangerous to the animal, its handler, or to other persons.

(f) Marking and labeling. Primary enclosures, other than those that are permanently affixed to a conveyance, must be clearly marked in English on the top and on one or more sides with the words “Wild Animals,” or “Live Animals,” in letters at least 1 inch (2.5 cm.) high, and with arrows or other markings to indicate the correct upright position of the primary enclosure. Permanently affixed primary enclosures must be clearly marked in English with the words “Wild Animals” or “Live Animals,” in the same manner.

(g) Accompanying documents and records. Shipping documents that must accompany shipments of nonhuman primates may be held by the operator of the primary conveyance, for surface transportation only, or must be securely attached in a readily accessible manner to the outside of any primary enclosure that is part of the shipment, in a manner that allows them to be detached for examination and securely reattached, such as in a pocket or sleeve. Instructions for administration of drugs, medication, and other special care must be attached to each primary enclosure in a manner that makes them easy to notice, to detach for examination, and to reattach securely. Food and water instructions must be attached in accordance with § 3.86(c) of this subpart.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.88 Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

(a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to transport nonhuman primates must be designed, constructed, and maintained in a manner that at all times protects the health and well-being of the animals transported in it, ensures their safety and comfort, and prevents the entry of engine exhaust from the primary conveyance during transportation.

(b) The animal cargo space must have a supply of air that is sufficient for the normal breathing of all the animals being transported in it.

(c) Each primary enclosure containing nonhuman primates must be positioned in the animal cargo space in a manner that provides protection from the elements and that allows each nonhuman primate enough air for normal breathing.

(d) During air transportation, the ambient temperature inside a primary conveyance used to transport nonhuman primates must be maintained at a level that ensures the health and well-being of the species housed, in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices, at all times a nonhuman primate is present.

(e) During surface transportation, the ambient temperature inside a primary conveyance used to transport nonhuman primates must be maintained between 45 °F (7.2 °C) and 85 °F (30 °C) at all times a nonhuman primate is present.

(f) A primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must be placed far enough away from animals that are predators or natural enemies of nonhuman primates, whether the other animals are in primary enclosures or not, so that the nonhuman primate cannot touch or see the other animals.

(g) Primary enclosures must be positioned in the primary conveyance in a manner that allows the nonhuman primates to be quickly and easily removed from the primary conveyance in an emergency.

(h) The interior of the animal cargo space must be kept clean.

(i) Nonhuman primates must not be transported with any material, substance (e.g., dry ice), or device in a manner that may reasonably be expected to harm the nonhuman primates or cause inhumane conditions.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.89 Food and water requirements.

(a) Each nonhuman primate that is 1 year of age or more must be offered food [FN5] at least once every 24 hours. Each nonhuman primate that is less than 1 year of age must be offered food at least once every 12 hours. Each nonhuman primate must be offered potable water at least once every 12 hours. These time periods apply to dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities, including Federal research facilities, who transport nonhuman primates in their own primary conveyances, starting from the time the nonhuman primate was last offered food and potable water before transportation was begun. These time periods apply to carriers and intermediate handlers starting from the date and time stated on the certification provided under § 3.86(c) of this subpart. Each nonhuman primate must be offered food and potable water within 4 hours before being transported in commerce. Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must certify that each nonhuman primate was offered food and potable water within the 4 hours preceding delivery of the nonhuman primate to a carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce, and must certify the date and time the food and potable water was offered, in accordance with § 3.86(c) of this subpart.

5 Proper food for purposes of this section is described in § 3.82 of this subpart, with the necessities and circumstances of the mode of travel taken into account.

(b) Any dealer, exhibitor, or research facility, including a Federal research facility, offering a nonhuman primate to a carrier or intermediate handler for transportation in commerce must securely attach to the outside of the primary enclosure used for transporting the nonhuman primate, written instructions for a 24–hour period for the in-transit food and water requirements of the nonhuman primate(s) contained in the enclosure. The instructions must be attached in a manner that makes them easily noticed and read.

(c) Food and water receptacles must be securely attached inside the primary enclosure and placed so that the receptacles can be filled from outside of the enclosure without opening the door. Food and water receptacles must be designed, constructed, and installed so that a nonhuman primate cannot leave the primary enclosure through the food or water opening.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.90 Care in transit.

(a) Surface transportation (ground and water). Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) transporting nonhuman primates in commerce must ensure that the operator of the conveyance or a person accompanying the operator of the conveyance observes the nonhuman primates as often as circumstances allow, but not less than once every 4 hours, to make sure that they have sufficient air for normal breathing, that the ambient temperature is within the limits provided in § 3.88(d) of this subpart, and that all other applicable standards of this subpart are being complied with. The regulated person transporting the nonhuman primates must ensure that the operator or the person accompanying the operator determines whether any of the nonhuman primates are in obvious physical distress, and obtains any veterinary care needed for the nonhuman primates at the closest available veterinary facility.

(b) Air transportation. During air transportation of nonhuman primates, it is the responsibility of the carrier to observe the nonhuman primates as frequently as circumstances allow, but not less than once every 4 hours if the animal cargo area is accessible during flight. If the animal cargo area is not accessible during flight, the carrier must observe the nonhuman primates whenever they are loaded and unloaded and whenever the animal cargo space is otherwise accessible to make sure that the nonhuman primates have sufficient air for normal breathing, that the ambient temperature is within the limits provided in § 3.88(d) of this subpart, and that all other applicable standards of this subpart are being complied with. The carrier must determine whether any of the nonhuman primates is in obvious physical distress, and arrange for any needed veterinary care for the nonhuman primates as soon as possible.

(c) If a nonhuman primate is obviously ill, injured, or in physical distress, it must not be transported in commerce, except to receive veterinary care for the condition.

(d) During transportation in commerce, a nonhuman primate must not be removed from its primary enclosure unless it is placed in another primary enclosure or a facility that meets the requirements of § 3.80 or § 3.87 of this subpart. Only persons who are experienced and authorized by the shipper, or authorized by the consignor or the consignee upon delivery, if the animal is consigned for transportation, may remove nonhuman primates from their primary enclosure during transportation in commerce, unless required for the health or well-being of the animal.

(e) The transportation regulations contained in this subpart must be complied with until a consignee takes physical delivery of the animal if the animal is consigned for transportation, or until the animal is returned to the consignor.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.91 Terminal facilities.

(a) Placement. Any persons subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) must not commingle shipments of nonhuman primates with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman primates must not be placed near any other animals, including other species of nonhuman primates, and must not be able to touch or see any other animals, including other species of nonhuman primates.

(b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control. All animal holding areas of terminal facilities must be cleaned and sanitized in a manner prescribed in § 3.84(b)(3) of this subpart, as often as necessary to prevent an accumulation of debris or excreta and to minimize vermin infestation and disease hazards. Terminal facilities must follow an effective program in all animal holding areas for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and birds and mammals that are pests of nonhuman primates.

(c) Ventilation. Ventilation must be provided in any animal holding area in a terminal facility containing nonhuman primates by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning. The air must be circulated by fans, blowers, or air conditioning so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans, vents, fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be used in any animal holding area containing nonhuman primates when the ambient temperature is 85 °F (29.5 °C) or higher.

(d) Temperature. The ambient temperature in an animal holding area containing nonhuman primates must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) or rise above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for more than four consecutive hours at any time nonhuman primates are present. The ambient temperature must be measured in the animal holding area by the carrier, intermediate handler, or a person transporting nonhuman primates who is subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3), outside any primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate at a point not more than 3 feet (0.91 m.) away from an outside wall of the primary enclosure, on a level that is even with the enclosure and approximately midway up the side of the enclosure.

(e) Shelter. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts l, 2, and 3) holding a nonhuman primate in an animal holding area of a terminal facility must provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Shade must be provided that is sufficient to protect the nonhuman primate from the direct rays of the sun.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Sufficient protection must be provided to allow nonhuman primates to remain dry during rain, snow, and other precipitation.

(f) Duration. The length of time any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) can hold a nonhuman primate in an animal holding area of a terminal facility upon arrival is the same as that provided in § 3.86(f) of this subpart.

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.


§ 3.92 Handling.

(a) Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) who moves (including loading and unloading) nonhuman primates within, to, or from the animal holding area of a terminal facility or a primary conveyance must do so as quickly and efficiently as possible, and must provide the following during movement of the nonhuman primate:

(1) Shelter from sunlight and extreme heat. Sufficient shade must be provided to protect the nonhuman primate from the direct rays of the sun. A nonhuman primate must not be exposed to an ambient temperature above 85 °F (29.5 °C) for a period of more than 45 minutes while being moved to or from a primary conveyance or a terminal facility. The ambient temperature must be measured in the manner provided in § 3.91(d) of this subpart.

(2) Shelter from rain or snow. Sufficient protection must be provided to allow nonhuman primates to remain dry during rain, snow, and other precipitation.

(3) Shelter from cold temperatures. Transporting devices on which nonhuman primates are placed to move them must be covered to protect the animals when the outdoor temperature falls below 45 °F (7.2 °C). A nonhuman primate must not be exposed to an ambient air temperature below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for a period of more than 45 minutes, unless it is accompanied by a certificate of acclimation to lower temperatures as provided in § 3.86(e) of this subpart. The ambient temperature must be measured in the manner provided in § 3.91(d) of this subpart.

(b) Any person handling a primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must use care and must avoid causing physical harm or distress to the nonhuman primate.

(1) A primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must not be placed on unattended conveyor belts or on elevated conveyor belts, such as baggage claim conveyor belts and inclined conveyor ramps that lead to baggage claim areas, at any time; except that a primary enclosure may be placed on inclined conveyor ramps used to load and unload aircraft if an attendant is present at each end of the conveyor belt.

(2) A primary enclosure containing a nonhuman primate must not be tossed, dropped, or needlessly tilted, and must not be stacked in a manner that may reasonably be expected to result in its falling. It must be handled and positioned in the manner that written instructions and arrows on the outside of the primary enclosure indicate.

(c) This section applies to movement of a nonhuman primate from primary conveyance to primary conveyance, within a primary conveyance or terminal facility, and to or from a terminal facility or a primary conveyance.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579–0093)

[FN2] Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds, and include more than 240 species. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats in nature. Some have been transported to the United States from their natural habitats and some have been raised in captivity in the United States. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ, as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another. Accordingly, these minimum specifications must be applied in accordance with the customary and generally accepted professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for each species, and necessary to promote their psychological well-being.

These minimum standards apply only to live nonhuman primates, unless stated otherwise.

SOURCE: 32 FR 3273, Feb. 24, 1967; 54 FR 36163, Aug. 31, 1989; 55 FR 28882, July 16, 1990; 56 FR 6486, Feb. 15, 1991; 56 FR 6495, Feb. 15, 1991; 60 FR 64115, Dec. 14, 1995; 62 FR 43275, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 10498, March 4, 1998; 65 FR 70770, Nov. 28, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131–2159; 7 CFR 2.22, 2.80, and 371.7.

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