Statutes / Laws


Full Site Search


The navigation select boxes below will direct you to the selected page when you hit enter.

Topical Explanations

Primary Legal Materials

Select by Subject

Select by Species

Select Administrative Topic

World Law

Secondary Legal Materials

Great Apes and the Law

Great Apes and the Law

Maps of State Laws

Map of USA

Anti-Cruelty: Related Statutes

Statute Name Citation Summary
AK - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   AK ST § 03.55.100 - 190; AK ST § 11.61.140 - 145   This section comprises Alaska's anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws, which were amended in 2010. A person commits cruelty to animals if the person: knowingly inflicts severe and prolonged physical pain or suffering on an animal; with criminal negligence, fails to care for an animal and, as a result, causes the death of the animal or causes severe physical pain or prolonged suffering to the animal; kills or injures an animal by the use of a decompression chamber; intentionally kills or injures a pet or livestock by the use of poison; knowingly kills or injures an animal with the intent to intimidate, threaten, or terrorize another person; or knowingly engages in sexual conduct with an animal, films such activity, induces such activity, or intentionally permits this to occur on premises under the person's control. The court may also prohibit or limit the defendant's ownership, possession, or custody of animals for up to 10 years for convictions under this section.  
AL - Cruelty - Alabama Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   AL ST § 13A-11-14 to 16; § 13A-11-240 to 247; § 13A-12-4 - 6; § 3-1-8 to 29; § 2-15-110 to 114  

These Alabama provisions contain the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The first section (under Article 1 of Chapter 11) provides that a person commits a Class A misdemeanor if he or she subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, neglect (as long as he or she has custody of the animal), or kills or injures without good cause any animal belonging to another. However, if any person intentionally or knowingly violates Section 13A-11-14, and the act of cruelty or neglect involved the infliction of torture to the animal, that person has committed an act of aggravated cruelty and is guilty of a Class C felony.  The next section (Article 11 of Chapter 11 entitled, "Cruelty to Cats and Dogs"), provides that a person commits the crime of cruelty to a dog or cat in the first degree if he or she intentionally tortures any dog or cat or skins a domestic dog or cat or offers for sale or exchange or offers to buy or exchange the fur, hide, or pelt of a domestic dog or cat. Cruelty to a dog or cat in the first degree is a Class C felony.

AL - Dog Fighting - Activities relating to fighting of dogs prohibited; violations; confiscation; procedures for disposition of animals; bond for the care of seized dog; forfeiture.   AL ST § 3-1-29   This Alabama statute constitutes the state's dogfighting law.  Under the law, it is a class C felony for any person to own, possess, keep or train any dog with the intent that such dog shall be engaged in an exhibition of fighting with another dog; for amusement or gain, to cause any dog to fight with another dog, or cause any dogs to injure each other; or to permit any of the above acts.  The law also makes it a class C felony to knowingly be present or be a spectator at dogfights.  
AL - Sterilization - Chapter 9. Sterilization of Dogs and Cats.   AL ST § 3-9-1 to 4   These statutes require animal shelters, animal control agencies, and humane societies to sterilize dogs and cats acquired from other animal shelters, animal control agencies, and humane societies.  For purposes of this statute, the term "sterilization" refers to the surgical removal of the reproductive organs of a dog or cat in order to render the animal unable to reproduce.  Adoptive animals must be sterilized by a licensed veterinarian before the animal is released to the new owner, or the new owner must enter into a written agreement with the facility certifying that sterilization will be performed by a licensed veterinarian within 30 days after acquisition of the animal or within 30 days of the sexual maturity of the animal.   
AR - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Laws   AR ST § 5-62-101 -126; 5-14-122   This section contains the Arkansas anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly abandons any animal, subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, fails to supply an animal in his or her custody with a sufficient quantity of wholesome food and water, fails to provide an animal in his or her custody with adequate shelter, kills or injures any animal belonging to another without legal privilege or consent of the owner, or carries an animal in or upon any motorized vehicle or boat in a cruel or inhumane manner. Aggravated cruelty to a cat, dog, or horse is a Class D felony if the offense involves the torture.  
AZ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes   AZ ST § 13-2910 - 09; § 13-1411   The Arizona section contains the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she intentionally, knowingly or recklessly subjects any animal under the person's custody or control to cruel neglect or abandonment, fails to provide medical attention necessary to prevent protracted suffering to any animal under the person's custody or control, inflicts unnecessary physical injury to any animal, or recklessly subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, among other things.  Animal is defined as a mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian.  Exclusions include hunting and agricultural activities in accordance with those laws and regulations in Arizona.  Intentionally attending a dogfight is a felony under this provision whereas attendance at a cockfight is a misdemeanor.  
AZ - Equine Transport - Transporting equine in a cruel manner; violation; classification; definitions. § 28-912. Vehicles transporting equine; violation; classification; definitions   AZ ST § 3-1312; § 28-912   These Arizona laws provide the requirements for transporting equines to slaughter. A vehicle used to transport equine for slaughter may have no more than one level or tier in the compartment containing the equine. Violation of the laws constitutes a misdemeanor.  
CA - Abandonment - § 597.1. Failure to care for animals; misdemeanor; powers and duties of local officers and veterinarians; hearings; liability for costs; forfeiture   CA PENAL § 597.1   Every owner, driver, or keeper of any animal who permits the animal to be in any building, enclosure, lane, street, square, or lot of any city, county, city and county, or judicial district without proper care and attention is guilty of a misdemeanor.  The statutes also creates a duty in peace officers, humane society officers, and animal control officers to cause the animal to be killed or rehabilitated and placed in a suitable home on information that the animal is stray or abandoned.  
CA - Abandonment - § 597.2. Equines; abandoned or relinquished; auction and adoption programs   CA PENAL § 597.2   This California statute sets forth the requirements for the sale of equines at a private or public auction and that the minimum price must be above the animal's slaughter price.  It also provides that a sale to an individual who buys an equine under the personal use provision shall submit a written statement declaring that the person is adopting the equine for personal use and not for purposes of resale, resale for slaughter, or holding or transporting the equine for slaughter.  
CA - Abandonment - § 597f. Failure to care for animals; duty of peace or humane officers; disposal of abandoned, sick or disabled animals; notice to owner; lien; injured cats and dogs in public places   CA PENAL § 597f   Every owner of any animal, who permits the animal to be without proper care and attention, shall, on conviction, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. It shall be the duty of any peace officer, officer of the humane society, or officer of a pound or animal regulation department of a public agency, to take possession of the animal so abandoned or neglected and care for the animal until it is redeemed by the owner. Every sick, disabled, infirm, or crippled animal, except a dog or cat, may, if after due search no owner can be found therefor, be killed by the officer. all injured cats and dogs found without their owners in a public place directly to a veterinarian known by the officer or agency to be a veterinarian that ordinarily treats dogs and cats for a determination of whether the animal shall be immediately and humanely destroyed or shall be hospitalized under proper care and given emergency treatment.
CA - Abandonment - § 597s. Abandonment of animals   CA PENAL § 597s   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to willfully abandon an animal, but does not apply to the release or rehabilitation and release of native California wildlife pursuant to statute or regulations of the California Department of Fish and Game.  
CA - Animal Defined - § 599b. Words and phrases; imputation of knowledge to corporation   CA PENAL § 599b   This statute defines words, such as "animal," as they are used in Title 14, the Malicious Mischief section, of the California Penal Code.  Title 14 is where all of the California Penal Code sections pertaining to animal cruelty are found.  
CA - Birds, killing - § 598. Birds in cemeteries; killing, trapping, destroying nests, etc.   CA PENAL § 598   This statute makes it unlawful within any public cemetery or burying-ground to kill, wound, or trap any bird, or destroy any bird's nest other than swallows' nests, or remove any eggs or young birds from any nest.  
CA - Bullfights - § 597m. Bullfights prohibited; exceptions; penalty   CA PENAL § 597m   This statute makes it unlawful for any person to promote, advertise, stage, hold, manage, conduct, participate in, engage in, or carry on any bullfight, but does not prohibit rodeos or bloodless bullfights, contests, or exhibitions held in connection with religious celebrations or religious festivals.  
CA - Crimes - § 597. Cruelty to animals   CA PENAL § 597  

This statutes states that anyone who maliciously and intentionally maims, mutilates, tortures, or wounds a living animal, or maliciously and intentionally kills an animal, is guilty of an offense punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, or by a fine of not more than twenty thousand dollars ($ 20,000), or by both the fine and imprisonment, or, alternatively, by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than twenty thousand dollars ($ 20,000), or by both the fine and imprisonment.  The statute also defines specific forms of torture and mistreatment that qualifies as a crime under this section.

CA - Crimes - § 597y. Violations; methods of killing; penalty   CA PENAL § 597y   A violation of Section 597u [Animals; prohibited killing methods] or 597v [Newborn dog or cat; methods of killing] is a misdemeanor.  
CA - Crimes, warrants - § 599a. Violations involving animals or birds; procedure for issuing warrant; authority of officer; attempts   CA PENAL § 599a   If a complainant believes that any provision of law relating to, or in any way affecting, dumb animals or birds, is being, or is about to be violated in any particular building or place, a magistrate may issue and deliver immediately a warrant directed to law enforcement, authorizing him to enter and search that building or place, and to arrest any person there present violating, or attempting to violate, any law relating to, or in any way affecting, dumb animals or birds.  
CA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty and Penal Code Sections   Cal. Penal Code §§ 286.5; 596 - 600.5  

These sections from the California Penal Code detail the crimes associated with animals, including anti-cruelty provisions, animal fighting statutes, unlawful killing methods, horse-specific laws, and a miscellaneous section containing provisions related to guide dogs, police dogs, bestiality, etc.

CA - Cruelty - Part 11. Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals   CA CORP § 14500 - 14505   This section of California laws concerns the formation and powers of societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals.  
CA - Cruelty - Part 9. Societies for Prevention of Cruelty to Children and Animals.   CA CORP § 10400 - 10406   This set of statutes outlines the rights and responsibilities of corporations that are formed for the prevention of cruelty to animals.  
CA - Cruelty - § 286.5. Sexually assaulting animal; misdemeanor   CA PENAL § 286.5   This California law provides that any person who sexually assaults any animal for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of the person is guilty of a misdemeanor.  
CA - Cruelty - § 597.4. Selling or giving away live animals on any street, highway, public right-of-way, parking lot, carnival, or boardwalk; prohibition; punishment; exclusions; application   CA PENAL § 597.4   This California statute makes is unlawful (with exceptions) to sell or give away, as part of a commercial transaction, a live animal on any street, highway, public right-of-way, parking lot, carnival, or boardwalk. The first violation is an infraction punishable by a fine up to $250. However, if the animal suffers, is injured, or its life or health is endangered, then the person is guilty of a misdemeanor.  
CA - Cruelty - § 597.6. Exotic or native wild cat species; alteration of toes, claws or paws   CA PENAL § 597.6   This California law provides that no person may perform, or otherwise procure or arrange for the performance of, surgical claw removal, declawing, onychectomy, or tendonectomy on any cat that is a member of an exotic or native wild cat species, and shall not otherwise alter such a cat's toes, claws, or paws to prevent the normal function of the cat's toes, claws, or paws. Violation results in a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for up to one year and/or a fine of up to $10,000.  
CA - Cruelty - § 597.7. Animal endangerment; confinement in unattended motor vehicle; violations and penalties   CA PENAL § 597.7   This California statute provides that no person shall leave or confine an animal in any unattended motor vehicle under conditions that endanger the health or well-being of an animal due to heat, cold, lack of adequate ventilation, or lack of food or water, or other circumstances that could reasonably be expected to cause suffering, disability, or death to the animal.  A first conviction for violation of this section is punishable by a fine not not exceeding $100 per animal. If the animal suffers great bodily injury, a violation of this section is punishable by a fine not exceeding $500, imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months, or by both a fine and imprisonment. Penalty enhancements are provided for subsequent convictions.  
CA - Cruelty - § 597.9. Cruelty to animals; persons convicted of specified misdemeanor and felony offenses prohibited from owning, possessing, caring for, etc. animals for specified time   CA PENAL § 597.9   Under this California law, any person convicted of a misdemeanor violation of certain animal cruelty laws (Section 597, or Section 597a, 597b, 597h, 597j, 597s, or 597.1) and who, within five years after the conviction, owns, possesses, maintains, has custody of, resides with, or cares for any animal is guilty of a public offense, punishable by a fine of one thousand dollars ($1,000). Additionally, any person who has been convicted of a felony violation of subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 597, or Section 597b or 597.5, and who, within 10 years after the conviction, owns, possesses, maintains, has custody of, resides with, or cares for any animal is guilty of a public offense, punishable by a fine of one thousand dollars ($1,000).  
CA - Cruelty, exemptions - § 599c. Construction of title; game laws; destruction of dangerous animals or reptiles; killing for food; authorized scientific experiments or investigations   CA PENAL § 599c   This statute makes it clear that the title is not meant to interfere with “game laws” or the right to destroy venomous reptiles or other dangerous animal. Neither is there an intent to interfere with laws regarding the destruction of certain birds, interfere with the right to kill animals used for food or with scientific experiments.  
CA - Docking - § 597n. Docked horses; prohibition of docking; importation or use of unregistered animals   CA PENAL § 597n  

This law was amended in 2009 to prohibit the docking or cutting of the solid part of any horse or cattle. Violation of the law constitutes a misdemeanor. The new law does provide an exclusion for the docking of any cattle's tail in an emergency for the purpose of saving the cattle's life or relieving the cattle's pain provided that the emergency treatment is performed consistent with the Veterinary Medicine Practice Act.

CA - Dog, tether - § 122335. Animal control”, “agricultural operation”, “person”, and “reasonable period” defined; prohibition against tethering dog to stationary object; exceptions; penalty   CA HLTH & S § 122335   This California law is the state's dog tethering provision. Under the law, no person shall tether, fasten, chain, tie, or restrain a dog, or cause a dog to be tethered, fastened, chained, tied, or restrained, to a dog house, tree, fence, or any other stationary object. A person may tether, fasten, chain, or tie a dog, but it must be no longer than is necessary for the person to complete a temporary task that requires the dog to be restrained for a reasonable period. A person who violates this chapter is guilty of an infraction or a misdemeanor. An animal control may issue a correction warning to a person who violates this chapter, requiring the owner to correct the violation, in lieu of an infraction or misdemeanor, unless the violation endangers the health or safety of the animal, the animal has been wounded as a result of the activity.  
CA - Elephant Abuse - § 596.5. Elephants; abusive behavior by owner or manager; misdemeanor   CA PENAL § 596.5   This statute makes it a misdemeanor for an owner or manager of an elephant to engage in abuse and specifies certain behaviors that qualify as abuse.  
CA - Enforcement - Chapter 5. Arrest, by Whom and How Made.   CA PENAL § 837, 847   This set of provisions authorizes private citizens to make arrests and explains when and how citizen arrests may be made.  
CA - Euthanasia - § 597u. Animals; prohibited killing methods   CA PENAL § 597u   This statute prohibits the use by any person of carbon monoxide gas or an intracardiac injection of a euthanasia agent on a conscious animal to kill an animal.
CA - Euthanasia - § 597v. Newborn dog or cat; methods of killing   CA PENAL § 597v   The statute prohibits the killing of a newborn dog or cat whose eyes have not yet opened by any other method than by the use of chloroform vapor or by inoculation of barbiturates.  
CA - Euthanasia - § 597w. Repealed by Stats.2005, c. 652 (A.B.1426), § 2   CA PENAL § 597w (repealed)   This repealed statute prohibited the killing of any dog or cat by the use of any high-altitude decompression chamber or nitrogen gas.  
CA - Euthanasia - § 599e. Killing unfit animals after notice by officer; offense of refusal to kill; killing by officer; exception   CA PENAL § 599e   This statute requires an owner of an animal deemed to be unfit for employment to kill the animal within 12 hours, after being notified by any peace officer, or be subject to criminal penalties.  
CA - Farm Animal Cruelty - Chapter 13.8. Farm Animal Cruelty. § 25991. Definitions.   CA HLTH & S § 25991 - 25994   This section provides the definitions, exception,s and enforcement provisions for the Chapter 13.8, Farm Animal Cruelty. The section was added after voters approved Initiative Measure (Prop. 2) in 2008. Any person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not to exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not to exceed 180 days or by both such fine and imprisonment.  
CA - Fighting Animals - § 597b. Fighting animals or cockfighting; prohibition; penalties; aiding and abetting   CA PENAL § 597b  

This statute forbids anyone from causing a fight between any animal or creature for amusement or gain, or allowing an animal fight to take place on her premises.  It also makes it a misdemeanor for anyone to be present at an animal fight.

CA - Food Production - Chapter 13.4. Force Fed Birds   CA HLTH & S § 25980 - 25984.1   This chapter concerns force fed birds (usually ducks or geese), employed in the process of making foie gras. Beginning July 1, 2012, California outlaws the sale of any product in the state that is the result of force feeding a bird for the purpose of enlarging the bird's liver beyond normal size. A peace or humane society officer may issue a citation for a civil penalty up to $1,000 for each violation, and up to $1,000 for each day the violation continues.  
CA - Horse docking - § 597p. Docked horses; registration; time; fee; certificate   CA PENAL § 597p   This statute requires every owner, or user of any docked horse, within the State of California, to register his or her docked horse.  
CA - Horse docking - § 597q. Docked horses; unregistered; prima facie evidence   CA PENAL § 597q   This statute provides that driving, working, keeping, racing or using any unregistered docked horse 60 days after the passage of this act is prima facie evidence of the fact that the party engaged in such activity docked the tail of such horse.  
CA - Horse slaughter - § 597o. Humane transportation of equine to slaughter; vehicle requirements; segregation of animals; violations   CA PENAL § 597o   This statute outlines the requirements for transporting equine to slaughter, including, but limited to, proper ventilation, sufficient space for equine to stand, and the use of ramps and floors with nonskid surfaces.  
CA - Horse tack - § 597k. Bristle bur, tack bur, etc.; use on animals   CA PENAL § 597k   This section makes it a misdemeanor to use a bristle bur, tack bur, or similar device, to be used on a horse or any other animal. A violation is punishable with imprisonment and/or imprisonment.
CA - Horse transportation - § 597x. Disabled equine; sale or transport for commercial slaughter; misdemeanor   CA PENAL § 597x   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to sell, load, or transport, any live equine that is disabled, if it is intended to be sold, loaded, or transported for commercial slaughter out of the state.  
CA - Horse Tripping - Poling or tripping a horse; offenses; exceptions   CA PENAL § 597g  

This section makes it a misdemeanor to pole or trip a horse for entertainment or sport. Poling is a method of training a horse to jump by forcing, persuading, or enticing a horse to lift its legs higher over a jump by hitting its front legs with a pole, rope, stick, etc. Tripping a horse is using a wire, pole, stick, rope, etc. to cause a horse to fall or lose its balance.

CA - Horses docking - § 597r. Docked horses; exception of imported stock; registration   CA PENAL § 597r   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to violate any of the horse docking provisions, but creates an exception from the provisions of Sections 597n, 597p, and 597q, to persons owning or possessing any docked purebred stallions and mares imported from foreign countries for breeding or exhibition purposes only.  
CA - Impound - § 597t. Confined animals   CA PENAL § 597t   This statute requires an animal kept in an enclosed area be provided with an adequate exercise area.  It also states that if the animal is restricted by a leash, rope, or chain, the leash, rope, or chain shall be affixed in such a manner that it will prevent the animal from becoming entangled or injured and permit the animal's access to adequate shelter, food, and water.  
CA - Pet Shop - § 597l. List providing what is unlawful for a pet shop operator to fail to do; information to be provided to buyers; ''pet animals" and "pet shop" defined; punishment   CA PENAL § 597l   This statute requires operators of pet shops to provide sanitary conditions, proper heating and ventilation, adequate nutrition and  space for a pet animal. Sellers must provide buyers with written recommendations for the generally accepted standards of care, including information on housing and feeding of the animal. Violations of the provisions constitute a misdemeanor.  
CA - Poisoning - § 596. Poisoning animals; exceptions; posting warning signs   CA PENAL § 596   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to poison an animal, but gives an exception to a property owner trying to control or destroy predatory animals or livestock-killing dogs on his/her property, if the owner displays specified warning signs.  
CA - Prize animals - § 599. Selling or giving away poultry or rabbits as inducement to enter contest, place of amusement or business   CA PENAL § 599   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to sell or give away, any live chicks, rabbits, ducklings, or other fowl as a prize for, or as an inducement to enter, any contest, game or other competition.  It also makes it a crime to dye or artificially color any of these animals, or display them without adequate facilities.  
CA - Racing - § 597h. Live animals; attaching to power propelled device to be pursued by dogs   CA PENAL § 597h   This statute makes it unlawful to tie, attach, or fasten any live animal to any machine or device propelled by any power for the purpose of causing such animal to be pursued by a dog or dogs.  
CA - Research Animals - Chapter 5. Regulation of Use of Animals in Diagnostic Procedures and Medical Research   CA HLTH & S § 1650 - 1677   This section regulates the use of animals in medical research. The California Department of Health Services is directed to make rules and regulations providing for satisfactory shelter, food, sanitation, record keeping, and for the humane treatment of animals by persons authorized by the board to raise, keep or to use animals medical research. The department is also authorized to inspect any premises where animals used for the purposes of this section are kept. Violations constitute a misdemeanor.
CA - Rodeos - § 596.7. Rodeos; veterinarians present at performances; violation of section   CA PENAL § 596.7   This statute regulating rodeos requires that animals involved have access to veterinary care and mandates treatment of injured rodeo animals. This statute forbids the use of  an electric prod once an animal is in the holding chute, unless necessary to protect participants or spectators. Violations of this section are infractions punishable by a fine.
CA - Service Animal - § 600. Horses or dogs used by peace officers; willful and malicious harm or interference; punishment; restitution   CA PENAL § 600   This statute makes it an offense to willfully, maliciously and with no legal justification harm, injure, obstruct, or interfere with a horse or dog under the supervision of law enforcement in the discharge of official duties. Violations are punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment. Punishment depends on the seriousness of the injury to the animal. Upon conviction, a defendant must also pay restitution for damages.  
CA - Service Animal - § 600.2. Allowing dog to injure or kill guide, signal or service dog; punishment; restitution   CA PENAL § 600.2   It is unlawful for any person to permit any dog he or she owns or controls to injure or kill any service dog while the service dog is in discharge of its duties. A violation is an infraction punishable by a fine if the injury is caused by the person's failure to exercise ordinary care. A violation is a misdemeanor if the injury is caused by reckless disregard in the exercise of control over his or her dog. A violation in this case shall be punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment. Upon conviction, the defendant shall make restitution, including veterinary bills and replacement costs.  
CA - Service Animal - § 600.5. Intentional injury to, or death of, guide, signal or service dog; penalty; restitution   CA PENAL § 600.5   Any person who intentionally causes injury to or the death of any service dog, while the dog is in discharge of its duties, is guilty of a misdemeanor. punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment. Upon conviction, a defendant must make restitution to the person with a disability who has custody or ownership of the dog for any veterinary bills and replacement costs of the dog if it is disabled or killed.  
CA - Slaughter - § 597.3. Live animal markets   CA PENAL § 597.3   This California statute regulates live animal markets. Operators must ensure that no animal (frogs, turtles, and birds, but not poultry) sold for the purpose of human consumption) is cut, dismembered, butchered, or de-feathered while still alive. Operators must also provide that no animals are confined in such a way that could case injury, starvation, dehydration, or suffocation. Violation may result in a warning for the first offense and an infraction for a second offense.  
CA - Slaughter - § 598b. Animals commonly kept as pets or companions; use as food; violation; exceptions   CA PENAL § 598b   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to possess, import into, or export from, California, sell, buy, give away, or accept any carcass of any animal commonly kept as a pet with the intent of using any part of that carcass for food.  It is also a misdemeanor to possess, import, export, buy, sell, give away or accept a common pet animal with the intent of killing it for food.
CA - Transport - § 597a. Cruelty to animals; transportation; care of animals by arresting officer; expense   CA PENAL § 597a   This statute makes it a misdemeanor for anyone to carry a domestic animal in a vehicle in a cruel manner, or knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits it to be subjected to unnecessary torture, suffering, or cruelty of any kind. If an officer takes a defendant into custody, the officer must take charge of such vehicle and its contents. A lien is placed on them for any necessary expenses incurred for their care, which must be paid before they can be recovered.  
CA - Vehicle - § 23117. Transportation of animals; enclosure or restraint requirements   West's Ann.Cal.Vehicle Code § 23117   This California law prohibits any person from transporting any animal in the open back of a vehicle on a highway unless the vehicle has sides that extend 46" vertically, or the animal is secured in a cage and cross-tethered to prevent it from jumping out of the vehicle. The law targets the transporting of dogs in the back of pickup trucks. Exclusions include the transportation of livestock and farm dogs.  
CO - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes   CO ST § 18-9-201 - 209; § 35-42-101 - 115   This Colorado section contains the anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws. A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence overdrives, overloads, overworks, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, unnecessarily or cruelly beats, allows to be housed in a manner that results in chronic or repeated serious physical harm, carries or confines in or upon any vehicles in a cruel or reckless manner, or otherwise mistreats or neglects any animal.  A person commits aggravated cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly tortures, needlessly mutilates, or needlessly kills an animal.  Cruelty to animals is a class 1 misdemeanor and aggravated cruelty or a second conviction of animal cruelty is class 6 felony.  This section also prohibits animal fighting (not limited to certain species such as dogs or chickens). Violation of this law results in a class 5 felony.  This section also makes it illegal to  own a dangerous dog and "tamper" with livestock.  
CO - Pet Shop - Article 80. Pet Animal Care and Facilities Act   CO ST § 35-80-101 to 117   This Colorado Act regulates pet animal facilities (i.e., shelters, large kennels, and breeders).  The Act covers licensing of the facilities and those activities deemed unlawful, such as selling a kitten or puppy under the age of 8 weeks and refusing a lawful inspection.  
CT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Laws   CT ST §§ 53-242 - 254; § 29-108a - 108i   This Connecticut section contains the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Any person who overdrives, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, deprives of necessary sustenance, mutilates or cruelly beats or kills or unjustifiably injures any animal, or fails to give an animal in his or her custody proper care, among other things shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year or both; a subsequent offense is a Class D felony.  Any person who maliciously and intentionally maims, mutilates, tortures, wounds or kills an animal is also guilty of a Class D felony. Animal fighting is also prohibited under this section as a Class D felony.  Connecticut has a cruelty to poultry law that provides that any crate or other container used for the purpose of transporting, shipping or holding for sale any live poultry must be in a sanitary condition with sufficient ventilation and warmth to prevent unnecessary suffering.  Other provisions include laws against dyeing chicks and rabbits, docking horses' tails, and the use of animals, birds, or reptiles to solicit money.  
CT - Transport - Connecticut Cruelty to Poultry Statute   CT ST § 53-249   This statute makes it illegal to transport poultry in any manner that is not sanitary, warm, and ventilated. Poultry must receive "reasonable care" to "prevent unnecessary suffering." Violation of this provision is a class D misdemeanor  
CT - Transportation of dogs in pick-up trucks - Chapter 248. Vehicle Highway Use   CT ST § 14-272b   This Connecticut law prohibits any person from transporting a dog in the open bed of a pick-up truck unless the dog is secured in a cage or other container to prevent it from jumping out of the truck.  
DC - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   DC ST § 22-1001 - 1015   This D.C. statutory section comprises the anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Whoever knowingly overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly chains, cruelly beats or mutilates, any animal, or knowingly causes such acts, or one who unnecessarily fails to provide proper food, drink, air, light, space, veterinary care, shelter, or protection from the weather, faces imprisonment up to180 days, or a fine of $250, or both.  Actions that result in serious bodily injury or death to the animal result in felony prosecution with imprisonment not exceeding 5 years or a fine of $25,000, or both.  "Animal" is defined by statute as all living and sentient creatures (human beings excepted).  This section also prohibits animal fighting as either a felony (i.e., wagering or conducting the fight) or a misdemeanor (knowingly being present).  
DC - Cruelty - Subchapter V. Classroom Animals.   DC CODE § 8-1851.01 to .02   These DC statutes allow animals of appropriate size and temperament be kept in classrooms for instructional purposes. The animals must be provided with sufficient food and water, and be cared for in a safe and humane manner. If the animals are no longer needed, they should be adopted out or given to a local humane organization for adoption.  
DC - Horses - Chapter 20. Horse-Drawn Carriages.   DC ST §§ 8-2001 - 2013   This DC regulation makes it unlawful to operate a horse-drawn carriage trade without a license and an ID card. The regulations forbid certain types of bits and require that each horse wear a diaper. Horses may not be worked or driven for more than 8 hours a day. Horses must be rested, provided with food and water. A violation of the regulations may result in a fine of $300 (1st offense). A serious intentional injury to the horse by neglect or inhumane treatment shall be fined up to $2,500.  
DE - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   DE ST TI 11 § 1325 - 1327; DE ST TI 3 § 7901 - 8007; DE ST TI 11 § 775 (formerly DE ST TI 11 § 777)   These Delaware sections comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Delaware's anti-cruelty section provides that cruelty to animals is when a person intentionally or recklessly subjects any animal (excluding fish, crustacea or molluska) to cruel mistreatment, cruel neglect, or kills or injures any animal belonging to another person.  Actively engaging in animal fighting activities is a class F felony while being a spectator at a fight is a class A misdemeanor.  
DE - Hunting - Chapter 7. Regulations and Prohibitions Concerning Game and Fish.   DE ST TI 7 § 704   This Delaware statute provides that no person shall make use of any pitfall, deadfall, scaffold, cage, snare, trap, net, pen, baited hook, lure, urine or baited field or any other similar device for the purpose of injuring, capturing or killing birds or animals protected by the laws of this State, except as otherwise specified.  It further states that no person shall make use of any drug, poison, chemical or explosive for the purpose of injuring, capturing or killing birds or animals protected by the laws of this State.  Use of such devices and contrivances, when found unlawfully set or placed, are subject to confiscation.  
DE - Tether, dog - Chapter 9. Dogs.   DE ST TI 9 § 904   This Delaware statute addresses the requirements for indoor and outdoor facilities housing dogs. It includes storage, drainage, waste disposal, ventilation, lighting, shelter, height, and surface requirements. Food, water, and use of tethers are also addressed.  
FL - Cruel Confinement - § 21. Limiting Cruel and Inhumane Confinement of Pigs During Pregnancy   FL CONST Art. 10 § 21  

This ballot proposal, adopted in 2002 and effective in 2008, addresses the inhumane treatment of animals, specifically, pregnant pigs. The law provides that to prevent cruelty to animals and as recommended by The Humane Society of the United States, no person shall confine a pig during pregnancy in a cage, crate or other enclosure, or tether a pregnant pig, on a farm so that the pig is prevented from turning around freely, except for veterinary purposes and during the prebirthing period; provides definitions, penalties, and an effective date. This measure passed in the November 2002 election with 54% of the vote.

FL - Cruelty, Humane Slaughter - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes/Humane Slaughter Laws   FL ST 828.01 - 828.43   This section comprises the Florida anti-cruelty laws.  Under this section, the word "animal" includes every living dumb creature.  The misdemeanor violation of animal cruelty (section 828.12) occurs when a person unnecessarily overloads, overdrives, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance or shelter, or unnecessarily mutilates, or kills any animal, or carries in or upon any vehicle, any animal in a cruel or inhumane manner.  A person who intentionally commits an act to any animal, or a person who owns or has the custody or control of any animal and fails to act, which results in the cruel death, or excessive or repeated infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering is guilty of a felony of the third degree.  Psychiatric or psychological counseling are also mandatory for convicted offenders.  The section also criminalizes animal abandonment and neglect as well as animal fighting.  
FL - Definitions - Animal Definitions   FL ST § 828.02   The word "animal" shall be held to include every living dumb creature.  
FL - Domestic Violence - 741.30. Domestic violence; injunction   FL ST § 741.30   This Florida law allows petitioners to file injunctions for protection against domestic violence. Among the described incidents of domestic violence from which the petitioner may obtain protection is where the respondent has "intentionally injured or killed a family pet." The court also considers this as a factor when determining whether there is reasonable cause to believe the petitioner is in imminent danger of becoming a victim of domestic violence. In 2012, an amendment was added to provide exemptions from public records requirements for personal identifying and location information of victims of domestic violence, repeat violence, sexual violence, and dating violence held by the clerks and law enforcement agencies.  
FL - Horse Slaughter - Chapter 828. Animals: Cruelty; Sales; Animal Enterprise Protection.   FL ST § 828.125   Florida Governor Charlie Crist signed this amendment into law on May 17, 2010 making it a second-degree felony for any person to willfully and unlawfully, by any means whatsoever, kill, maim, mutilate, or cause great bodily harm or permanent breeding disability to any animal of the genus Equus (horse). Any person who commits a violation of this subsection shall be sentenced to a minimum mandatory fine of $3,500 and a minimum mandatory period of incarceration of 1 year.  
GA - Cruelty - Chapter 11. Animal Protection   GA ST § 4-11-1 to 4-11-18   The Georgia Animal Protection Act was passed in 2000 and provides for jail up to one year for general cruelty convictions and up to five years for an aggravated cruelty conviction.  The judge is also allowed to order psychological counseling.  The law also encompasses licensing provisions for kennels and impoundment provisions.  
GA - Cruelty - Cruelty to Animals   GA ST § 16-12-4; GA ST § 16-6-6   This comprises Georgia's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the statute, "animal" does not include any fish or any pest that might be exterminated or removed.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals when he or she causes death or unjustifiable physical pain or suffering to any animal by an act, an omission, or willful neglect. Any person convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, but subsequent convictions incur enhanced penalties.  A person commits the offense of aggravated cruelty to animals when he or she knowingly and maliciously causes death or physical harm to an animal by rendering a part of such animal's body useless or by seriously disfiguring such animal.  
GA - Deer Hunting - CHAPTER 5. WILD ANIMALS   GA ST 27-5-12   Under this Georgia statute, it is unlawful to shoot, kill, or wound any wild animal held under a wild animal license or permit or any farmed deer for enjoyment, gain, amusement, or sport.  
GA - Horses - Chapter 13. Humane Care for Equines.   GA ST § 4-13-1 to 4-13-10   This section comprises Georgia's Humane Care for Equines Act. The act states that it is unlawful for the owner of any equine to fail to provide adequate food and water to such equine; to fail to provide humane care for such equine; or to unnecessarily overload, overdrive, torment, or beat any equine or to cause the death of any equine in a cruel or inhumane manner. The Act also outlines procedures for the care impounded of equines as well as disposal procedures, which includes auction and euthanasia, when the owner cannot be found or refuses to enter into a consent order. Violation of this chapter results a misdemeanor.  
HI - Cruelty - Hawaii Cruelty to Animals Provisions (Chapter 711)   HI ST § 711-1100 - 1110.5   Under this set of Hawaii laws, a person commits the misdemeanor offense of cruelty to animals if the person intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly overdrives, overloads, tortures, torments, cruelly beats or starves any animal, deprives a pet animal of necessary sustenance, mutilates, poisons, or kills without need any animal other than insects, vermin, or other pests, or engages in animal fighting enterprises.  Dog fighting constitutes a felony where the person owns or trains the dog to fight.  The section has enhanced penalties for cruelty to guide or service animals or interference with their duties.  
HI - Shark fins; prohibited - Chapter 188. Fishing Rights and Regulations.   HI ST § 188-40.7   Hawaii passed this law in 2010 prohibiting the sale, trade, or distribution of shark fins. Prior to July 1, 2011, any restaurant holding a valid certificate, permit, or license issued by the department of health may possess, sell, offer for sale, trade, or distribute shark fins possessed by that restaurant as of July 1, 2010 which are prepared for consumption. Any person violating this section or any rule adopted pursuant to this section incurs an administrative fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $15,000 for first offense. The fine then increases to $15,000 - $35,000 for a second offense, and $35,000 - 50,000 or imprisonment for up to 1 year, or both, for a third or subsequent offense.  
IA - Cruelty - Chapter 717. Injury to Livestock   IA ST § 717.1 - 717.7  

Livestock were excluded from the definition of animal in Iowa's animal cruelty laws in 1994.  These sections deal exclusively with livestock and exempt practices consistent with customary farming practices.

IA - Cruelty - Injury to Animals other than Livestock   IA ST § 717B.1 - 717E.3   Under Title XVI of Iowa's criminal code, there are several chapters that outlaw forms of animal cruelty and animal fighting.  The main animal cruelty provisions are contained in chapter 717B (Injuries to Animals other than Livestock). This chapter defines "animal" as any nonhuman vertebrate.  However, it excludes livestock, game, fur-bearing animal, fish, reptile, or amphibian unless a person owns, confines, or controls the game, fur-bearing animal, fish, reptile, or amphibian, and any nongame considered a "nuisance."  There are separate prohibitions against animal abuse, animal neglect, animal torture, abandonment of a cat or dog, and injury to a police service dog.  Under both the animal abuse and animal torture sections, a first offense results in an aggravated misdemeanor.  However, animal torture requires a mandatory psychological evaluation and graduates subsequent convictions to felony status.  Exclusions under the various sections include veterinary care, hunting, animal husbandry, and scientific research, among others.  Other criminal chapters include chapters 717C.1 (Bestiality), 717D (Animal Contest Events), and 717E (Pets as Prizes).  
IA - Pet Shop - Chapter 162. Care of Animals in Commercial Establishments.   IA ST § 162.1 - 25  
The purpose of this chapter is to insure that all dogs and cats handled by boarding kennels, commercial kennels, commercial breeders, dealers, and public auctions are provided with humane care and treatment by regulating the transportation, sale, purchase, housing, care, handling, and treatment of such animals.
ID - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   ID ST § 25-3501 - 3521; ID ST § 18-6605   These Idaho statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Every person who is cruel to any animal and whoever having the charge or custody of any animal subjects any animal to cruelty is guilty of a misdemeanor.  "Animal" means any vertebrate member of the animal kingdom, except humans.  "Cruelty" is defined as the intentional and malicious infliction of pain, physical suffering, injury or death upon an animal as well as the negligent deprivation of necessary sustenance, among other things.  Dogfighting and cockfighting exhibitions are also prohibited, but the rearing of gamecocks regardless of their later intended use is not prohibited.  
ID - Misc. Animal Crimes - Chapter 58. Public Health and Safety   ID ST § 18-5803, § 18-5804, § 18-5807, § 18-5808   These Idaho statutes make certain activities involved with animal slaughter criminal. For example, it is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine to put the carcass of any dead animal into any river, creek, pond or street. It is a misdemeanor to slaughter or sell any animal that has been confined for 20 hours without water or 48 hours without food. The statutes also make it a felony if a mischievous animal is allowed to run at large and the animal kills a person.  
IL - Cruelty - Horse Mutilation Act   IL ST CH 720 § 315/0.01 - 1   This act was repealed in 2013. The former text  prevents the docking of horses' tails. Violation results in a Class A misdemeanor.  
IL - Cruelty Generally - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes (Humane Care for Animals Act)   IL ST CH 510 § 70/1 - 18; IL ST CH 720 § 5/12-35  

This comprehensive Humane Care of Animals Act from Illinois gives the requisite anti-cruelty provisions.  "Animal" means every living creature, domestic or wild, but does not include man.  Notably, the Act includes a provisions for psychological counseling for a person convicted of violating this section.  An individual is guilty of a Class B misdemeanor for the first offense and a second or subsequent violation is a Class 4 felony with every day that a violation continues constituting a separate offense.  The Act includes special provisions for juveniles and "companion animal hoarders" (510 ILCS 70/2.10).  The cruelty provisions are listed at 510 ILCS 70/3.01, 3.02, and 3.03.  The statute also prohibits the marketing and distribution of depictions of animal torture or cruelty for entertainment purposes (510 ILCS 70/3.03-1).

IL - Hunting - 5/3.34. Exotic game hunting area permit   IL ST CH 520 § 5/3.34 (repealed 2011)   (Repealed 2011). This Illinois statute provides that any person who imports into Illinois wild or semi-domestic mammals from other states or foreign countries for the purpose of providing hunting with bow and arrow or gun with or without dogs must obtain an exotic game hunting area permit.  Certain specifications are outlined in the statute, including the requirement that the area be at least 640 contiguous acres and a certification that the animals are disease-free.  
IL - Pet Shops - Chapter 225. Professions and Occupations.   IL ST CH 225 § 605/1 - 22   This section comprises Illinois' Animal Welfare Act.  The Act is primarily aimed at regulating commercial pet dealers, such as kennels, breeders, and retail pet shops.  The provisions include restrictions on the age at which both dogs and cats can be separated from their mothers (8 weeks).  
IN - Breeder - Article 21. Commercial Dog Breeder Regulation   IN ST 15-21-1-1 to 15-21-7-1   This set of Indiana commercial dog breeder laws goes into effect on January 1, 2010. The laws set forth requirements for commercial breeders in Indiana, defined as  a person who maintains more than twenty (20) unaltered female dogs that are at least twelve (12) months of age. These laws do not apply to humane societies, rescue groups, certain service and hunting dog breeders, foster homes, or hobby breeders. A person may not operate a commercial dog breeder or broker operation without first registering with the state. Failure to register is a Class A misdemeanor. The chapter sets forth minimum standards of care and requires that a breeder comply with federal standards of care set forth in 9 CFR 3.1 through 9 CFR 3.12. Enforcement of the chapter will fall to the Indiana state board of animal health, which may seek injunctive relief and impose civil penalties ranging from $500 - $5,000 for violations.  
IN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   IN ST 35-46-3-.05 to 15; IN ST 36-8-3-18   These Indiana statutes set forth the anti-cruelty laws.  As used in this chapter, "animal" does not include a human being.  A person having a vertebrate animal in the person's custody who recklessly, knowingly, or intentionally abandons or neglects the animal commits cruelty to an animal, a Class B misdemeanor.  A person who knowingly or intentionally purchases or possesses an animal for the purpose of using the animal in an animal fighting contest commits a Class A misdemeanor.  
KS - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty and Animal Fighting Laws   KS ST 21-6411 - 6418 (formerly KS ST § 21-4310 - 4319); KS ST 21-5504 (formerly KS ST § 21-3505)   The Kansas anti-cruelty statutes define cruelty to animals as knowingly killing, injuring, maiming, torturing, burning or mutilating any animal. Also included as cruelty are abandoning any animal, failing to provide food, horse-tripping, and poisoning any domestic animal, unlawful disposition of animals, dog and cock-fighting. Cruelty to animals may be a misdemeanor or a felony. Exceptions are made for such things as veterinary practices, research experiments, rodeo and farming practices, euthanasia, and pest control. It is also illegal to allow a dangerous animal to run at large or to engage in sodomy with an animal.  
KS - Pet Sales - Chapter 47. Livestock and Domestic Animals.   KS ST 47-1701 - 1737   The following statutes comprise Kansas' Pet Animal Act. The Act outlines the requirements for pet shop operator licensing and animal dealers.  
KY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   KY ST § 525.125 - 135; KY ST § 436.610   These Kentucky statutes represent the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Under the law, animal cruelty in the first-degree (a class D felony) occurs when a person causes four-legged animals to fight for pleasure or profit.  Exclusions under this section include, among others, the killing of animals when hunting, fishing, or trapping; as incident to the processing as food or for other commercial purposes; or for veterinary, agricultural, spaying or neutering, or cosmetic purposes.  
LA - Cruelty - Chapter 17. Cruelty to Animals (Corporations for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)   LA R.S. 3:2391 - 2501   These chapters concerns the powers and duties of Louisiana corporations for prevention of cruelty to animals.  
LA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   LSA-R.S. 14:102 - .26   These Louisiana statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  The term "cruel" is defined in the first section every act or failure to act whereby unjustifiable physical pain or suffering is caused or permitted.  The crime of cruelty to animals is subdivided into simple cruelty or aggravated cruelty. Simple cruelty occurs when a person intentionally or with criminal negligence overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, or overworks, torments, cruelly beats, or unjustifiably injures, or, having charge, custody, or possession of any animal, either as owner or otherwise, unjustifiably fails to provide any living animal with proper food, proper drink, proper shelter, or proper veterinary care.  
LA - Cruelty - § 107.1. Ritualistic acts   LSA-R.S. 14:107.1, LA R.S. 14:107.1   This Louisiana law states that it is necessary for "the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, morals, safety, and welfare and for the support of state government and its existing public institutions" to ban certain ritualistic acts. With regard to animals, the law defines a "ritualistic act" to include the mutilation, dismemberment, torture, abuse, or sacrifice of animals or the ingestion of animal blood or animal waste. Any person committing, attempting to commit, or conspiring with another to commit a ritualistic act may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.  
LA - Dog Fighting - House Bill 2064 (Louisiana Prohibition on Illegal Dog Training (failed))   Louisiana House Bill 2064 (2001)  

This Louisiana 2001 proposed law would have provided for the crime of illegally training dogs; however, it died in committee.  It would have also defined "illegally train" to mean the training of a dog to attack or kill a human being, another dog, or any other animal species.  The proposed law would have created exceptions for any dog used by law enforcement officials, a guard dog used to defend livestock raised for commercial or subsistence purposes, or a guard dog used to defend any school, place of business, or personal residence.   Violation of the proposed law would have incurred a fine of not more than $500 or imprisonment of not more than six months, or both.

LA - Dog Fighting - Senate Bill 682 (Louisiana Prohibition on Animal Fighting (failed))   Louisiana Senate Bill 682 (2001)   This Louisiana Senate Bill proposed in 2001 would have expanded the definition for animal fighting from "dog fighting" to "animal fighting" and also prohibits intentional animal fighting.  The amended law would have provided for the seizure and destruction or disposition of such animals and equipment used in animal fighting and would have created penalties for violations, including imprisonment.   
LA - Dog Fighting - Senate Bill 866 (Louisiana Dogfighting Amendments (passed))   Louisiana Senate Bill 866 (2001)   This Louisiana senate bill passed in the summer of 2001 defines the act of dogfighting and makes admissible as evidence of dogfighting certain paraphernalia used in the training of dogs to fight and injuries or alterations to the dog that are consistent with dogfighting.  It exempts certain activities, including the training of dogs to protect livestock and the cropping of dogs' ears for cosmetic purposes.  Upon first conviction, violation incurs a fine of  not more than one thousand dollars or imprisonment with or without hard labor for not more than one year, or both. Upon a second or subsequent conviction, the offender shall be fined not more than three thousand dollars or be imprisoned with or without hard labor for not more than three years, or both.  
LA - Zoo - Sport killing of zoo or circus animals prohibited   LA HB 1621 (Section 1. R.S.14:102.19)   This Louisiana statute is aimed at eliminating the practice of selling retired zoo or circus animals to "canned hunt" facilities.  It makes both the killing of a former zoo or circus animal for sport a crime as well as the sale or donation of such animal to any sport hunting entity.  Violation of the act incurs a potential $500 fine and/or six months imprisonment.  
MA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MA ST 272 § 77 - 95; MA ST 272 § 34; MA ST 22C § 57   These Massachusetts laws contain the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  § 77 is the operative anti-cruelty statute and provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly beats, mutilates or kills an animal, and whoever uses in a cruel or inhuman manner in a race, game, or contest, or in training, as lure or bait a live animal (except as bait in fishing), or knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits it to be subjected to unnecessary torture, suffering or cruelty of any kind shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than 5 years or imprisonment for not more than 2 1/2 years or by a fine of not more than $2,500, or by both such fine and imprisonment.  Other prohibitions include the dyeing of baby chicks, the docking of horse tails, and both felony and misdemeanor penalties for animal fighting, depending on conduct. In 2010, the state made non-medically necessary devocalization of dogs or cats illegal.  
MA - Equine transport - License plates for vehicles transporting equine animals   MA ST 129 § 46, 48   This Massachusetts law provides that vehicles transporting equines must have a special license plate. Also, the use of multiple deck vehicles or the so-called "possum belly" vehicle used in the transportation of equine animals is prohibited.  
MD - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MD CRIM LAW § 10-601 - 623; MD CRIM LAW § 3-322   This Maryland statutory section comprises the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the section, "animal" means a living creature except a human being.  "Cruelty" is defined as the unnecessary or unjustifiable physical pain or suffering caused or allowed by an act, omission, or neglect, and includes torture and torment.  Agricultural, veterinary, research, and "an activity that may cause unavoidable physical pain to an animal, including food processing, pest elimination, animal training, and hunting. . . " are excluded from the purview of the act.  
MD - Equine Transport - Subtitle 9. Transporting Horses.   MD AGRIC § 3-901 - 903   This Maryland section provides the requirements for transporting horses. The law states that "[a] person may not transport a horse in a vehicle that is not designed and constructed in a manner that at all times protects the health and well-being of the horse being transported." Of importance is the provision that limits the vehicle used to transport the horses to one level (e.g., no double-deck trailers are allowed). Violation of the law incurs a civil penalty in the amount of $500 per horse for the first offense and $1,000 for each subsequent offense.  
MD - Hunting - Maryland Initiative Summaries from API   HB 9, 10, and 377   These summaries for Maryland house bills 9, 10, and 377 were drafted by the Animal Protection Institute and list potential ramifications for passage or rejection of the proposed bills.  The bills concern changing hunting regulations to allow hunting on Sundays, further management measures for black bears, and the banning of steel leg-hold traps.  
MD - Hunting - Subtitle 9. Captive Wildlife.   MD NAT RES § 10-901 - 911   This Maryland statute states that it is in the state's public interest to preserve native species by strictly regulating the possession, importation, exportation, breeding, raising, protection, rehabilitation, hunting, killing, trapping, capture, purchase, or sale of certain wildlife which pose a possibility of harm to native wildlife.  
ME - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   ME ST Tit. 7 § 3971 - 4041; ME ST Tit. 17 § 1011 - 1046   These Maine statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  The first section of laws occurs under Title 7, Agriculture and Animals.  Under these laws, a person commits animal cruelty if he or she kills the animal of another person; kills an animal by an inhumane method; injures, overworks, tortures, torments, abandons or cruelly beats or intentionally mutilates an animal; gives drugs to an animal with an intent to harm the animal; gives poison or alcohol to an animal; or exposes a poison with intent that it be taken by an animal.  The neglect component of the statute provides that a person commits cruelty if he or she deprives an animal that the person owns or possesses of necessary sustenance, necessary medical attention, proper shelter, protection from the weather or humanely clean conditions.  These acts are then cross-referenced under the criminal provisions of Title 17, which describes the penalties under § 1031.  Animal fighting is a class D crime under this section.  
ME - Farming - An Act To Prohibit Cruel Confinement of Calves Raised for Veal and Sows during Gestation   LD 1021 (2009)  

This bill prohibits the cruel confinement of calves raised for veal and sows during gestation. It specifically prohibits a person from confining an animal covered under the law (a sow during gestation or calf raised for veal) the majority of a day in a manner that prevents the animal from lying down, standing up and fully extending the animal’s limbs, and turning around freely. It becomes effective January 1, 2011.

ME - Ferret - Chapter 730-A. Breeding, Sale and Transportation of Small Mammals   ME ST T. 7 § 3970-A - 3970-B   This chapter concerns the sale and importation of juvenile ferrets. (For other exotic pet laws in Maine, see § 3931-B. Wolf hybrid kennel).  
MI - Counseling - Senate Bill 754 - Counseling Required for Juvenile Cruelty Convictions   M.C.L.A. 712A.18l (Public Act 175 of 2000)   This bill amends the Michigan anti-cruelty statutes such that the court shall order that an adjudicated  juvenile be evaluated to determine the need for psychiatric or psychological treatment. If the court determines that psychiatric or psychological treatment is appropriate for that juvenile, the court may order that treatment.  
MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code.   MI ST 750.51   This Michigan law provides that no railroad company shall permit the confinement of animals in railroad cars for longer than 36 consecutive hours without unloading for rest, water, and feeding of at least 5 consecutive hours unless prevented by a storm, or other "accidental causes." Any company, owner or custodian of such animals, who does not comply with the provisions of this section, can be fined between $100 and $500 for each and every such offense. However, when animals are carried in cars where they have proper food, water, space and opportunity for rest, the provisions of this section that require unloading do not apply.  
MI - Cruelty - 712A.18l. Juveniles, guilty of cruelty to animals or arson; court ordered psychiatric or psychological treatment   M. C. L. A. 712A.18l   This statute provides that if a juvenile is found to be within the court's jurisdiction for an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be a violation of the Michigan penal code relating to either cruelty to animals or arson, the court shall order that the juvenile be evaluated to determine if he or she needs psychiatric or psychological treatment. If the court determines that psychiatric or psychological treatment is appropriate, the court may order that treatment in addition to any other treatments or penalties allowed by law.  
MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.   M.C.L.A. 750.50b   This law was amended in late 2008 to clearly define killing or torturing an animal as a general intent crime (the terms "willfully" and "maliciously" were changed to "knowingly"). Under the statute, violation is an automatic felony punishable by a prison term of up to four years for knowingly killing, torturing, mutilating, maiming, poisoning any animal "without just cause." That phrase was added to exclude negligent conduct such as hitting a deer on the road.  In addition, commission of  a reckless act knowing or having reason to know that the act will cause an animal to be killed, tortured, mutilated, maimed, or disfigured also falls under the statute. Among the exclusions are hunting, fishing, trapping, livestock husbandry, and scientific research.  
MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.   M.C.L.A. 750.52   This statute provides that it is the duty of the officials involved in animal cruelty investigations to arrest and prosecute those committing the offenses where there is knowledge or reasonable notice of the acts.  The failure or neglect by an officer involved to do so may result in a misdemeanor.  
MI - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes (MCL 750.49 - 70)   M. C. L. A. 750.49 - 70; M.C.L.A. 750.158   The Michigan Legislature has designed three primary provisions related to cruelty to animals: intentional infliction of pain and suffering, duty to provide care, and anti-animal fighting.  The intentional infliction of pain and suffering provision carries the most severe penalties for animal cruelty and a violation is automatically a felony.  A violation of the duty to provide care provision is initially a misdemeanor, which becomes a felony for a second or subsequent violation.  A violation of the anti-animal fighting provision is either a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the severity of conduct related to fighting.  The provision does not apply to the lawful killing of livestock or customary animal husbandry of livestock, or lawful fishing, hunting, trapping, wildlife control, pest or rodent control, and animal research.  
MI - Cruelty - Legislative Analysis   HOUSE BILLS 4550-4552 (legislative analysis)  

This document is the legislative analysis for House Bills 4551 and 4552. The bills (now law) amend the penal laws (MCL 750.50) to revise the penalties for harming animals and allow for consecutive sentencing.  Both bills would exempt veterinarians and veterinarian technicians from the prohibitions and penalties when lawfully engaging in the practice of veterinarian medicine. Under the new law, a court could order a term of imprisonment imposed for a violation prohibited under the bills to be served consecutively to a term of imprisonment imposed for any other crime including any other violation of law arising out of the same transaction. 

MI - Cruelty, neglect - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.   MCL 750.50   This statute sets out the Michigan duty of care for all vertebrate animals, including what define adequate food, water, and shelter. Also explained are the penalty and forfeiture provisions for violations of the statute. The exclusions under the statute include those animals used in hunting, fishing, trapping, horse racing, farming, zoos, and scientific research.  The 2008 amendments revise the penalties for harming animals and allow for consecutive sentencing.  
MI - Enforcement - Chapters 760 to 777 Code of Criminal Procedure.   MI ST 764.16   This law authorizes private citizens to make arrests.  
MI - Forfeiture - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code   M.C.L.A. 750.53   This statute provides that a person violating any of the animal cruelty statutes may be arrested without warrant, similar to the arrest of those found disturbing the peace.  Further, the official making the arrest has a duty to seize the animals involved and place them in the custody of the jurisdiction.  
MI - Service Animal - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.   M.C.L.A. 750.50c   This statute outlines the penalty for the intentional physical harm or interference with a police dog or horse.  The statute provides for a misdemeanor in the case of interference to the animal and a five-year felony where the animal was killed or seriously physically injured.  If the interference was committed during the commission of another felony, then the penalty rises to a potential two-year imprisonment.  
MI - Service Animal - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.   M.C.L.A. 750.50a   This statute sets out the penalty for willful and malicious interference with guide dogs used by individuals defined by statute as blind, deaf, or physically limited.  Under the statute, a first offense results in a misdemeanor conviction with penalty enhancement for subsequent convictions.  
MN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MN ST 343.01 - 40; MN ST 609.294   These Minnesota statute comprise the anti-cruelty laws in the state.  This section first allows the formation of private prevention of cruelty to animals societies and humane societies and sets forth their obligations by law.  "Animal" is defined by this section as every living creature except members of the human race.  No person shall overdrive, overload, torture, cruelly beat, neglect, or unjustifiably injure, maim, mutilate, or kill any animal, or cruelly work any animal when it is unfit for labor.  Under the neglect component, the statute states that no person shall deprive any animal over which the person has charge or control of necessary food, water, or shelter, among other things.  
MO - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MO ST 578.005 - 188; MO ST 566.111   These Missouri statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The term "animal" means every living vertebrate except a human being.  The provisions of sections 578.005 to 578.023 do not apply to the care or treatment performed by a licensed veterinarian, bona fide scientific experiments, hunting, fishing, or trapping, publicly funded zoological parks, rodeo practices, the killing of an animal by the owner, the lawful, humane killing of an animal by an animal control officer, the operator of an animal shelter, a veterinarian, or law enforcement or health official, normal or accepted practices of animal husbandry, the killing of an animal by any person at any time if such animal is outside of the property of the owner or if such animal is injuring any person or farm animal, the killing of house or garden pests, or field trials, training and hunting practices as accepted by the Professional Houndsmen of Missouri.  A person is guilty of animal neglect when he or she has custody or ownership or an animal and fails to provide adequate care, which results in substantial harm to the animal.  A person is guilty of abandonment when he or she has knowingly abandoned an animal in any place without making provisions for its adequate care.  Animal neglect and abandonment is a class C misdemeanor upon first conviction with enhancement to a class B misdemeanor for subsequent convictions.  A person is guilty of animal abuse when a person intentionally or purposely kills an animal in any manner not allowed by law, purposely or intentionally causes injury or suffering to an animal, or, having ownership or custody of an animal, knowingly fails to provide adequate care or control.  Animal abuse is a class A misdemeanor unless the person was previously convicted.  
MO - Hunting - Admin. Code - Confined Wildlife: Privileges, Permits, Standards   3 MO ADC 10-9.565   This Missouri administrative regulation sets out the privileges and requirements for licensed shooting areas.  Included are the regulations for game bird hunting areas and big game hunting preserves.  
MO - Pet Shop - Animal Care and Facilities Licensing and Regulation (Chapter 273)   MO ST 273.325 - 359   Under these Missouri statutes, a license is required to operate animal boarding facilities, pet shops, pounds, dealers and commercial breeders. The canine cruelty prevention act makes it the crime of canine cruelty if the person poses a substantial risk to the health and welfare of animals in the person's custody. A violation is a misdemeanor.  
MS - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MS ST § 97-41-1 to 97-41-23; MS ST § 97-29-59  

This section constitutes Mississippi's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions, which were recently amended in 2011. The pertinent anti-cruelty law, § 97-41-1, states that any person who intentionally or with criminal negligence overrides, overdrives, overloads, tortures, torments, unjustifiably injures, deprives of necessary sustenance, food, or drink, cruelly beats, or needlessly mutilates any living creature, is guilty of a misdemeanor. The cat and dog cruelty provision, § 97-41-16, was significantly amended in 2011. This section, known as the "Mississippi Dog and Cat Pet Protection Law of 2011," makes it a misdemeanor to intentionally or with criminal negligence wound, deprive of adequate food, water, or shelter, or carry or confine in a cruel manner, any domesticated cat or dog. Aggravated cruelty occurs when a person with malice intentionally tortures, mutilates, maims, burns, starves or disfigures any domesticated dog or cat.

MT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MT ST 45-8-209 to 45-8-211;45-8- 217; 7-23-4104; 45-5-505   This section comprises Montana's anti-cruelty and dogfighting laws.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly or negligently subjects an animal to mistreatment or neglect; fails to provide an animal in the person's custody with food and water of sufficient quantity or minimum protection for the animal from adverse weather conditions; or, in cases of immediate, obvious, serious illness or injury, fails to provide licensed veterinary or other appropriate medical care.  Animal abandonment of a "helpless animal" or abandoning any animal on any highway, railroad, or in any other place where it may suffer is also considered cruelty.  A first conviction results in a possible $1,000/1 year imprisonment with graduating penalty enhancements for subsequent convictions.  This section does not prohibit a person humanely destroying an animal for just cause or the use of commonly accepted agricultural and livestock practices on livestock (among other things). Section 217 defines aggravated cruelty as either knowingly or purposely killing or inflicting cruelty to an animal with the purpose of terrifying, torturing, or mutilating the animal, or inflicting cruelty to animals on a collection, kennel, or herd of 10 or more animals.  
NC - Cruelty - Article 47. Cruelty to Animals.   NC ST § 14-360 to 14-363.2; § 19A-1 - 70; § 160A-182, § 14-177   This section comprises the relevant North Carolina animal cruelty statutes.  The anti-cruelty statute provides that if any person shall maliciously kill, or cause or procure to be killed, any animal by intentional deprivation of necessary sustenance, that person shall be guilty of a Class H felony.  If any person shall maliciously torture, mutilate, maim, cruelly beat, disfigure, poison, or kill, or cause or procure to be tortured, mutilated, maimed, cruelly beaten, disfigured, poisoned, or killed, any animal, every such offender shall for every such offense be guilty of a Class H felony. This section also makes promoting or conducting a cock fight a misdemeanor and promoting or conducting a dogfight a felony. Other prohibited acts include abandoning an animal, conveying any animal in a cruel manner, and restraining a dog in a cruel manner. This section also includes the civil remedy provisions.  
ND - Cruelty - Chapter 36-21.1. Humane Treatment of Animals.   ND ST 36-21.1-01 to 15   This North Dakota section comprises the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions. The relevant anti-cruelty statute provides that no person may overdrive, overload, torture, cruelly beat, neglect, or unjustifiably injure, maim, mutilate, or kill any animal, or cruelly work any animal when unfit for labor.  It also includes a neglect component, stating that no person may deprive any animal over which the person has charge or control of necessary food, water, or shelter, nor may a person keep any animal in any enclosure without exercise and wholesome change of air.  The statute also prohibits the abandonment of any animal and has a provision that describes the dimensions of cages for the public display of animals.  However, the latter does not apply to agricultural fairs, state fairs, or zoos.  
NE - Cruelty - Article 10. Offenses Against Animals   NE ST § 28-1001 to 1020   This Nebraska statutory section comprises the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  The cruelty provision provides that a person who abandons or cruelly neglects an animal is guilty of a Class I misdemeanor.  Intentional animal cruelty results in a Class I misdemeanor for the first offense and a Class IV felony for any subsequent offense, unless such cruel mistreatment involves the knowing and intentional torture, repeated beating, or mutilation of the animal where such an act automatically results in a Class IV felony.  Animal means any vertebrate member of the animal kingdom, but does not include an uncaptured wild creature (which appears to exclude otherwise heinous, intentional acts to wildlife).  
NE - Cruelty - Article 9. Livestock Animal Welfare Act   NE ST § 54-901 to 54-912   In 2010, Nebraska enacted the Livestock Animal Welfare Act. The act makes the intentional abandonment, neglect, or cruel mistreatment of livestock (bovine, equine, swine, sheep, goats, domesticated cervine animals, ratite birds, or poultry) a Class I misdemeanor (Class IV felony for subsequent offenses). Further, the act criminalizes "indecency with a livestock animal," which is a Class III misdemeanor. A person who is convicted of a Class IV felony under 54-903 (the abandonment/cruel neglect or mistreatment provision) shall also be ordered by the sentencing court not to possess a livestock animal for at least 5 years after the date of conviction.  
NE - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws   NE ST § 14-102; § 15-218 - 220; § 16-206; 16-235; § 17-526, 17-547; § 25-21,236; § 37-525; § 37-705; § 54-601 - 616; § 54-617 - 624; § 54-625 - 650; § 71-4401 - 4412   These Nebraska statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Among the provisions include the municipal authority to regulate dogs at large and licensing, rabies control, and dangerous dog laws.  The set of laws relating to commercial pet dealers and breeders is also provided.  
NE - Hunting - Administrative Wildlife Regulations: Keeping Wildlife in Captivity   163 NE ADC Ch. 4, § 008   These Nebraska administrative regulations set forth the regulations pertaining to captive wildlife permits.  Under the provisions, Captive Wildlife Permits shall not be issued for wild birds or wild mammals which have been taken or removed from the wild.  It is also unlawful for wild birds or wild mammals to be kept in captivity unless they are confined in a manner reasonably designed to prevent escape and are given humane treatment, as defined in the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service code book.  Wild birds or wild mammals must be placed in a semi-natural environment where they will have substantial freedom of movement.  
NH - Cruelty - Cruelty to Animals   N.H. Rev. Stat. § 644:8 - 644:8-f; N.H. Rev. Stat. § 105:14 - 18   These New Hampshire statutes provide the animals anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions for the state.  Included are general anti-cruelty laws for any animal (including domestic and wild animals), exhibitions of fighting animals, provisions for protection of animals riding in motor vehicles, restrictions related to docking the tail of a horse, provisions for the use of animals in science classes or fairs, laws against maiming or willfully interfering with police dogs or horses,  laws related to the willful interference with organizations or projects involving animals, and provisions related to dogs riding in pick-up trucks.  
NJ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   NJ ST 4:22-10 to 4:22-60  

These New Jersey statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  According to the definitional section, "animal" or "creature" includes the whole brute creation.  Exclusions under the act include state regulated scientific experiments, state sanctioned killing of animals, hunting of game, training of dogs, normal livestock operations, and the killing of rats and mice.  With regard to livestock practices, no person may be cited or arrested for a first offense involving a minor or incidental violation of any provision of this title involving alleged cruelty to domestic livestock unless that person has first been issued a written warning. 

NM - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   NMSA 1978, § 30-18-1 to 30-18-15   This section comprises the New Mexico anti-animal cruelty provisions.  As used in this section, "animal" does not include insects or reptiles.  Cruelty to animals occurs when person negligently mistreats, injures, kills without lawful justification or torments an animal or abandons or fails to provide necessary sustenance to an animal under that person's custody or control.  Extreme cruelty to animals, a fourth-degree felony, consists of a person intentionally or maliciously torturing, mutilating, injuring or poisoning an animal or maliciously killing an animal.  Upon conviction, the court may order a person to participate in an animal cruelty prevention program or an animal cruelty education program, or to obtain psychological counseling for treatment of a mental health disorder.  
NM - Property - Chapter 77. Animals and Livestock.   NMSA 1978, § 77-1-1   Dogs, cats and domestic birds are considered personal property in New Mexico.  
NV - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   N. R. S. 574.010 to 574.510   This comprehensive section comprises the Nevada anti-cruelty statutes.  The section first empowers private prevention of cruelty to animals societies and outlines their powers and responsibilities, including the power to arrest.  Under this section, "animal" does not include the human race, but includes every other living creature.  Animal cruelty, as described in Section 574.100, prohibits the overdriving, overloading, torture, cruel beating or unjustifiable injuring, maiming, mutilation or killing of an animal, as well as the deprivation of necessary sustenance, food or drink.  The first offense under this section is a misdemeanor with enhancement to a felony for a third or subsequent convictions.  Animals fighting is also prohibited under the section, with enhanced sentences for subsequent convictions.  Other specific crimes include mistreatment of dogs, abandonment of animals, poisoning (although the section does not prohibit the destruction of "noxious animals"), and basic requirements for the care of dogs and cats kept in kennels or sold by pounds or pet shops.  
NY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law § 331 - 379; McKinney's Penal Law § 130.20   These New York statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  "Animal" includes every living creature except a human being.  A person who overdrives, overloads, tortures or cruelly beats or unjustifiably injures, maims, mutilates or kills any animal, or deprives any animal of necessary sustenance, food or drink, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or by both.  Exclusions include properly conducted scientific tests, experiments or investigations, involving the use of living animals approved by the state commissioner of health.  
NY - Enforcement - Agriculture and Markets Law - Article 3. Investigation; Practice and Procedure; Violations; Penalties.   McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law § 32 - 45-a   This article outlines the procedures and penalties for violations of New York's Agriculture and Markets Law.  
NY - Humane Societies - § 2.10. Persons designated as peace officers   McKinney's CPL § 2.10   This New York statute outlines the people who are designated as peace officers. Included are officers or agents of a duly incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to animals.  
NY - Racing - § 220. Licenses for participants and employees at race meetings   McKinney's Racing, Pari Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law § 220   The state racing and wagering board issues licenses to owners, trainers, assistant trainers and jockeys, jockey agents, and stable employees for horse races, including steeplechases.  
OH - Cruelty - Chapter 1717. Humane Societies. County Humane Societies   R.C. § 1717.01 - 1717.15   This chapter relates to the formation and powers of humane societies in Ohio. Under the chapter, a county humane society organized under section 1717.05 of the Revised Code may appoint agents, who are residents of the county or municipal corporation for which the appointment is made, for the purpose of prosecuting any person guilty of an act of cruelty to persons or animals. Such agents may arrest any person found violating this chapter or any other law for protecting persons or animals or preventing acts of cruelty.  
OH - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   R.C. § 959.01 - 959.99  

These statutes comprise Ohio's anti-animal cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Included in the prohibited acts are abandoning domestic animals, willfully injuring or poisoning domestic or agricultural animals, drugging animals in competition, and "cruel" acts to both wild and domestic animals as defined by statute.  The section also prohibits dogfighting and cockfighting.

OH - Livestock - Chapter 904. Livestock Care Standards   R.C. § 904.01 - 904.09   These Ohio statutes establish the Ohio livestock care standards board and Ohio livestock care standards fund. The statutes make it illegal to falsify any plans, specifications, data, reports, records, or other information required to be kept or submitted to the director of agriculture or the board.  
OK - Cruelty - Animal Facilities Protection Act/Consolidated Cruelty Laws   21 Okl. St. Ann. 1680 - 1700   These Oklahoma statutes comprise the Animal Protection Act.  The main thrust of the act is the prohibition of animal cruelty and animal fighting.  Included in the provisions are the definitions (including the statutory definition of "animal") and the prohibited acts related to animal facilities.  The statute further provides that no one shall intentionally damage the enterprise conducted at an animal facility (including releasing animals there with the intent to deprive the owner of such facility).  Violation incurs a felony with a fine of up to $5,000 or imprisonment up to seven years or both.  
OR - Animal Definitions - Chapter 87. Statutory Liens. Liens Generally. 87.142. Definitions   O. R. S. § 87.142   This is Oregon's statutory definitions for Animal Statutes.  
OR - Cruelty - Arrest warrants in cruelty matters (Chapter 133)   O. R. S. § 133.375 - 381   This set of Oregon laws relates to the arrest of those found violating the state's cruelty laws. Under the section, any person violating ORS 167.315 to 167.333, 167.340, 167.355, 167.365 or 167.428 may be arrested and held without warrant, in the same manner as in the case of persons found breaking the peace. Further, any peace officer who cares or provides for an animal pursuant to this section and any person into whose care an animal is delivered by a peace officer acting under this section shall be immune from civil or criminal liability based upon an allegation that such care was negligently provided.  
OR - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   O. R. S. § 167.310 - 390   These Oregon statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty laws.  "Animal" means any nonhuman mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian or fish.  The term "assault," which is generally associated with human crimes, is used to define certain crimes against animals.  Animal abuse may be elevated to a felony offense if the act was committed directly in front of a minor child or if the perpetrator was previously convicted of domestic violence.  
PA - Cruelty - Chapter 37. Humane Society Police Officers.   22 Pa.C.S.A. § 3701 - 3718   These statutes enable and regulate Pennsylvania's grant of police powers to humane society agents. Topics within these statutes include the appointment, termination, powers granted to, and training of humane society police officers.  
PA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   18 Pa.C.S.A. § 5511 - 5511.3; 18 Pa.C.S.A. § 3129   This section constitutes the Pennsylvania anti-cruelty provisions.  The section distinguishes between misdemeanor and felony cruelty and the type of animal involved.  Misdemeanor cruelty (a fine of $500) occurs when a person kills, maims or disfigures any domestic animal of another person, administers or exposes a domestic animal to poison, or interferes with a guide or service animal.  A person commits a felony of the third degree if he or she willfully and maliciously kills, maims or disfigures any zoo animal in captivity or intentionally administers poison to such. Any person convicted of violating the provisions of this paragraph shall be sentenced to pay a fine of not less than $1,000 or to imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, and the court may also order a presentence mental evaluation.  A subsequent conviction under this paragraph shall be a felony of the third degree. Also included in these provisions is the Horse Transport Law, which prohibits the transporting of horses stacked on top of each other. Exclusions under the act include the killing of animals found to be destroying domestic animals, the hunting of game animals, the killing of dogs declared nuisances, and pest control.  
RI - Cruelty - Chapter 1. Cruelty to Animals   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-1-1 - 40; Gen.Laws 1956, § 11-10-1   These Rhode Island statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  The cruelty law provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, or cruelly beats, mutilates or kills any animal, is subject to imprisonment up to 11 months, or a fine of $50.00 - $500, or both.  The intentional cruelty provision expands the penalty to 2 years possible imprisonment or a fine of $1,000, or both.  
RI - Transportation - § 4-1-7. Live poultry containers   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-1-7   This Rhode Island statute requires poultry be shipped in sanitary, warm, and ventilated containers.  
SC - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   Code 1976 § 47-1-10 - 210; Code 1976 § 16-15-120   This South Carolina subsection comprises the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The term "animal" under this subchapter includes all living vertebrate creatures except homo sapiens (but see the exclusion section where fowl are specifically excluded).  Animal cruelty occurs when a person knowingly or intentionally overloads, overdrives, overworks, ill-treats any animal, deprives any animal of necessary sustenance or shelter, inflicts unnecessary pain or suffering upon any animal, or by omission or commission knowingly or intentionally causes these things to be done.  The statute also has a felony provision for the torture, tormenting, needless mutilation, cruel killing, or infliction of excessive or repeated unnecessary pain.  
SD - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   S D C L § 9-29-11; S D C L § 40-1-1 - 41; S D C L § 40-2-1 - 9; S D C L § 43-39-12, 12.1; SDCL § 22-22-42   These South Dakota statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  "Animal," any mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, or fish, except humans.  The mistreatment, torture, or cruelty of an animal is any act or omission whereby unnecessary, unjustifiable, or unreasonable physical pain or suffering is caused, permitted, or allowed to continue including acts of mutilation.  The neglect of an animal is the failure to provide food, water, protection from the elements, adequate sanitation, adequate facilities, or care generally considered to be standard and accepted for an animal's health and well-being consistent with the species, breed, physical condition, and type of animal.  No person owning or responsible for the care of an animal may inhumanely treat such animal. A violation of this section is a Class 1 misdemeanor.  Exemptions include regulated scientific experiments using live animals and the destruction of dangerous animals.  
TN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   T. C. A. § 39-14-201 - 217   These Tennessee anti-cruelty provisions define "animal" as a domesticated living creature or a wild creature previously captured.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals (a Class A misdemeanor)  if he or she intentionally or knowingly tortures, maims or grossly overworks an animal; fails unreasonably to provide necessary food, water, care or shelter for an animal in the person's custody; abandons unreasonably an animal in the person's custody; transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner; or inflicts burns, cuts, lacerations, or other injuries or pain.  Animal fighting is also prohibited under this section, with dog fighting incurring a felony penalty and cockfighting resulting in a misdemeanor in most cases.  A person commits aggravated cruelty (a Class E felony) to animals when, with aggravated cruelty and with no justifiable purpose, he or she intentionally kills or intentionally causes serious physical injury to a companion animal.  Exclusions include animal farming, research, veterinary practices, hunting, trapping, "dispatching" rabid animals or wild animals on one's property, among other things.  
TX - Counseling - § 54.0407. Cruelty to Animals: Counseling Required.   V. T. C. A., Family Code § 54.0407   For juveniles convicted under the Texas criminal animal cruelty statute (found at Tex. Penal Code § 42.09), psychological counseling is required.  
TX - Cruelty - Chapter 821. Treatment and Disposition of Animals.   V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code § 821.001 - 026; § 821.051 - 057; § 821.076 - 081  

This Texas section addresses the treatment of animals and disposition of cruelly treated animals. 

TX - Cruelty - Chapter 829. Animal Control Officer Training   V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code § 829.001 - 009   This chapter concerns the appointment of animal control officers in Texas. The chapter requires that an animal control officer complete training, which includes at least a 12-hour basic animal control course and subsequent continuing education.  
TX - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   TX PENAL § 42.09; § 42.091; § 42.092; § 42.10; § 42.105   These comprise Texas' anti-cruelty laws.  Texas has laws that prohibit cruelty to both livestock (§ 42.09) and non-livestock animals (§ 42.092).  Both laws requires a scienter of intentionally or knowingly, and enumerate limited defenses.  "Animal" means a domesticated living creature and wild living creature previously captured but does not include an uncaptured wild creature.  Also included is Texas animal fighting provision, which criminalizes being a spectator at an animal fighting exhibition among other things. In 2011, Texas enacted a law prohibiting cockfighting.  
TX - Fighting - § 42.10. Dog Fighting.   V. T. C. A., Penal Code § 42.10   Texas criminal statute that prohibits dog fighting. Actions ranging from causing a dog to fight with another to attending a dog fight as a spectator are prohibited. To constitute an offense, one must demonstrate the requisite intent of intentionally or knowingly.  
TX - Hunting - Subchapter F. Unlawful Controlled Killing of or Attempting to Injure Dangerous Wild Animals.   V. T. C. A., Parks & Wildlife Code § 62.101 - 107   This Texas statute provides that no person may kill or attempt to injure a dangerous wild animal that is in captivity in this state or released from captivity in this state for the purpose of being killed.  
US - Prohibition on importation of dog and cat fur products - Chapter 4. Tariff Act of 1930.   19 U.S.C.A. § 1308  

This federal statute prohibits commerce in dog or cat fur.  Specifically, the statute forbids import into, or export from, the United States of any dog or cat fur product; or the introduction into interstate commerce, manufacture for introduction into interstate commerce, sell, trade, or advertise in interstate commerce, offer to sell, or transport or distribute in interstate commerce in the United States, any dog or cat fur product.  The exception under the act is for the importation, exportation, or transportation, for noncommercial purposes, of a personal pet that is deceased, including a pet preserved through taxidermy.

US - Slaughter - Downed Animal Protection Act (House Version)   H.R. 1421 (2001)  

To amend the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921, to make it unlawful for any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer to transfer or market nonambulatory cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats, and for other purposes.   (Proposed in 2001, but not adopted).

US - Slaughter - Downed Animal Protection Act (Senate Version)   S 267 IS (107th Congress)  

To amend the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, to make it unlawful for any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer to transfer or market nonambulatory livestock, and for other purposes.   (Proposed in 2001, but not adopted).

UT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   U.C.A. 1953 § 76-9-301 - 307  

These Utah statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  "Animal" is defined as a live, nonhuman vertebrate creature, but animals raised for agricultural purposes and wildlife are excluded from the definition.  A person is guilty of cruelty to animals if the person intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence fails to provide necessary food, care, or shelter for an animal in his custody, abandons an animal in the person's custody, transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner, injures an animal, or causes any animal to fight with another animal for amusement or gain.  Aggravated cruelty (i.e., torturing, poisoning, or intentionally killing an animal) and dogfighting incur stiffer penalties.

UT - Impound - Chapter 46. Animal Welfare Act. Part 1. General Provisions   U.C.A. 1953 § 11-46-101 - 103   Under this act, animal control officers must hold stray animals in safe and humane custody for a minimum of 5 business days prior to making any final disposition of the animal. A stray animal may be euthanized prior to the completion of the 5-day period to prevent unnecessary suffering due to serious injury or disease.  
VA - Cruelty - Article 7. Animal Control Officers and Humane Investigators. Article 8. Search, Seizure, Impounding, and Enforcement   Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6555 - 3.2-6569   These chapters relate to the qualifications and duties of animal control officers and the procedures for impounding stray animals.  
VA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   Va. Code Ann. §§ 3.2-6500 - 6590; Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-361   These Virginia statutes set forth Title 3.2, the Comprehensive Animal Care laws, which include the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions. For the purposes of § 3.2-6570, the operative animal cruelty law, animal means any nonhuman vertebrate species including fish except those fish captured and killed or disposed of in a reasonable and customary manner. The section has a misdemeanor animal cruelty law as well as a felony provision related to torture or willful infliction of cruelty. The section requires companion animal owners to provide adequate care.  
VA - Fighting - § 3.2-6571. Animal fighting; penalty   Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6571  

This section makes it unlawful to knowingly promote, prepare, engage in or attend an exhibition of the fighting of animals. The violation becomes a Class 6 felony if: 1) one of the animals is a dog; 2) a device or substance is used to enhance the dog's ability to fight; 3) money or something else of value is wagered; 4) admission is paid; 5) an animal is owned or possessed with the intent to engage in an animal fight; or 6) a person causes a minor to attend or undertake in the activities. An animal used in fighting may be confiscated by law enforcement. Additionally, any person convicted of violating any listed provision shall be prohibited by the court from possession or ownership of companion animals or cocks.

VT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   13 V.S.A. § 351 - 400   This Vermont statutory section contains the amended anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws.  Animal cruelty, as defined by § 352, occurs when a person overworks, overloads, tortures, torments, abandons, administers poison to, cruelly beats or mutilates an animal, or deprives an animal which a person owns or possesses of adequate food, water, shelter, rest, sanitation, or necessary medical attention.  It is also animal cruelty  if one owns, possesses, keeps or trains an animal engaged in an exhibition of fighting.  The section excludes scientific research activities, hunting, farming, and veterinary activities among others.  
WA - Cruelty - 60.56.025. Lien created for care of animal seized by law enforcement officer   West's RCWA 60.56.025   This Washington law states that if a law enforcement officer authorizes removal of an animal pursuant to chapter 16.52 RCW, the person or entity receiving the animal and aiding in its care or restoration to health shall have a lien upon the animal for the cost of feeding, pasturing, and caring otherwise for the animal.  
WA - Cruelty - Chapter 16.52. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.   West's RCWA 16.52.010 - 320   This section of statutes contains Washington's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the section, "animal" means any nonhuman mammal, bird, reptile, or amphibian.  WA ST 16.52.205 and WA ST 16.52.207 are the primary anti-cruelty provisions that categorize cruelty in either the first or second degree.  A person is guilty of animal cruelty in the first degree (a class C felony) when he or she intentionally inflicts substantial pain on, causes physical injury to, or kills an animal by a means causing undue suffering, or forces a minor to inflict unnecessary pain, injury, or death on an animal.  A person is guilty of animal cruelty in the second degree (a misdemeanor) if, under circumstances not amounting to first degree animal cruelty, the person knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence inflicts unnecessary suffering or pain upon an animal.  An owner of an animal is guilty of animal cruelty in the second degree the owner knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence fails to provide the animal with necessary food, water, shelter, rest, sanitation, ventilation, space, or medical attention and the animal suffers unnecessary or unjustifiable physical pain as a result of the failure, or if he or she abandons the animal.  
WI - Cats - Question 62 - DEFEATED   Wisconsin 2005 Question 62  

This controversial measure would have allowed hunters to hunt any cat that was found free roaming, meaning it did not exhibit a collar or other signs of domestic ownership.  At the Monday, April 11, 2005 meeting of the Wisconsin Conservation Congress, those in favor of the feral cat hunting proposal approved the measure by a vote of 6,830 to 5,201.  This approval was then forwarded to the state Natural Resources Board for consideration.  Proponents of the measure suggest feral cats expose domestic animals to disease and endanger native songbirds.  Opponents of the measure counter that such a law would be cruel and archaic, putting domestic cats who have escaped from their homes at risk of death.  On May 25, 2005 at the Natural Resources Board regular spring meeting, a representative of the Congress indicated that the Executive Committee has declined to pursue the issue any further.  (See the official meeting minutes at page 5 at  Feral cat advocates claimed a public relations victory, as the measure gained national and even international criticism.  (See Alley Cat Allies at  (For more on the procedural history of this measure, see the "Long Summary" under the "Statute Details" above).   

WI - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   W. S. A. 951.01 - 18; W.S.A. 944.17   This section comprises the Wisconsin anti-cruelty section.  Under the section, "animal" includes every living warm-blooded creature (except a human being), reptile, or amphibian.  The section prohibits "mistreating animals," which is defined as treating any animal, whether belonging to the person or another, in a cruel manner.  This section does not prohibit bona fide experiments carried on for scientific research or normal and accepted veterinary practices.  This section also prohibits the instigation of dogfights, and has a unique provisions that prohibits the shooting of caged or staked animals.  
WV - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   W. Va. Code, § 7-10-1 - 5; 61-8-19 - 23   These West Virginia statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  If any person cruelly mistreats, abandons or withholds proper sustenance, including food, water, shelter or medical treatment, necessary to sustain normal health and fitness or to end suffering or abandons any animal to die, or uses, trains or possesses any domesticated animal for the purpose of seizing, detaining or maltreating any other domesticated animal, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor.  If any person intentionally tortures or maliciously kills an animal, or causes, procures or authorizes any other person to torture or maliciously kill an animal, he or she is guilty of a felony.  The provisions of this section do not apply to lawful acts of hunting, fishing, trapping or animal training or farm livestock, poultry, gaming fowl or wildlife kept in private or licensed game farms if kept and maintained according to usual and accepted standards of livestock, poultry, gaming fowl or wildlife or game farm production and management.  The section also prohibits animal fighting as a misdemeanor unless the animals involved were wild game or fur-bearing animals, in which case it becomes a felony.  
WY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   WY ST § 6-3-203   Wyoming amended its cruelty law in early 2011 to include the new offense of "household pet animal cruelty." Under the general anti-cruelty part of the law, a person commits cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly and with intent to cause death, injury or undue suffering overrides an animal or drives an animal when overloaded, unnecessarily or cruelly beats, tortures, torments, injures, mutilates or attempts to kill an animal, or carries an animal in a manner that poses undue risk of injury or death.  The neglect component provides that person who has charge and custody of any animal and unnecessarily fails to provide it with the proper food, drink or protection from the weather, or cruelly abandons the animal, or fails to provide the animal with appropriate medical care is also guilty of cruelty.  
WY - Cruelty, livestock - Chapter 29. Protection of Livestock Animals.   WY ST § 11-29-101 - 115   This chapter concerns cruelty to livestock animals. The laws state that every person who confines or causes to be confined any livestock animal under the laws of this state, must supply to the livestock animal during confinement a sufficient quantity of wholesome food and water. The section also provides that officers and agents of the Wyoming livestock board must be provided with a certificate and badge. Any peace officer, agent or officer of the board may lawfully interfere to prevent the perpetration of any act of cruelty upon any livestock animal in his or her presence.  

Back to top