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CITES Conf. 9.24, Criteria for amendment of Appendices I and II



Country of Origin: Multilateral Treaty

Agency of Origin:

National Citation: CITES Conf. 9.24


Summary:  

This is the attempt by the Party States under CITES to define just what "endangered" might mean for different types of plants and animals.


Material in Full:

RECALLING that the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting, held in Kyoto, Japan, in March 1992, was convinced that the criteria adopted at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties (Bern, 1976) (Resolutions Conf. 1.1 and Conf. 1.2) did not provide an adequate basis for amending the Appendices, and directed the Standing Committee to undertake, with the assistance of the Secretariat, a revision of the criteria for amending the Appendices (Resolution Conf. 8.20);

NOTING that this review was carried out in consultation with the Parties and on the basis of initial technical work carried out by IUCN in collaboration with other experts;

NOTING further that all aspects of this review were addressed by a joint meeting of the Plants and Animals Committees, in association with the Standing Committee, held in Brussels in September 1993;

CONSIDERING the fundamental principles in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article II of the Convention, which specify the species to be included in Appendices I and II;

RECOGNIZING that to qualify for inclusion in Appendix I a species must meet biological and trade criteria;

RECALLING that Article II, paragraph 2 (a), provides for the inclusion of species which may become threatened with extinction in Appendix II, in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival;

RECOGNIZING that for the proper implementation of this provision it is necessary to adopt appropriate criteria, considering both biological and trade factors;

RECALLING that paragraph 2 (b) of Article II provides only for the inclusion in Appendix II of species which must be subject to regulation in order that trade in specimens of certain species included in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (a), may be brought under effective control;

CONSIDERING, however, that this provision should also apply where there is a need to bring under effective control trade in specimens of species included in Appendix I;

RECOGNIZING that the range States of a species subject to an amendment proposal should be consulted following the procedures recommended by the Conference of the Parties, and that the intergovernmental bodies having a function in relation to that species should be consulted as well;

NOTING the competence of certain intergovernmental organizations in relation to the management of marine species;

RECALLING that the international trade in all wild fauna and flora is under the purview of the Convention;

EMPHASIZING the importance of Resolution Conf. 3.4, adopted at the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties (New Delhi, 1981), regarding the need to provide to developing countries technical assistance in matters relating to the Convention;

RECOGNIZING that by virtue of the precautionary principle, in cases of uncertainty, the Parties shall act in the best interest of the conservation of the species when considering proposals for amendment of Appendices I and II;

THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION

ADOPTS the following Annexes as an integral part of this Resolution:

Annex 1: Biological criteria for Appendix I;

Annex 2 a: Criteria for the inclusion of species in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (a);

Annex 2 b: Criteria for the inclusion of species in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (b);

Annex 3: Special cases;

Annex 4: Precautionary measures;

Annex 5: Definitions, notes and guidelines; and

Annex 6: Format for proposals to amend the Appendices;

RESOLVES that when considering any proposal to amend Appendix I or II the Parties shall apply the precautionary principle so that scientific uncertainty should not be used as a reason for failing to act in the best interest of the conservation of the species;

RESOLVES that, when considering proposals to amend Appendices I and II, the following applies:

a) any species that is or may be affected by trade should be included in Appendix I if it meets at least one of the biological criteria listed in Annex 1;

b) a species "is or may be affected by trade" if:

i) it is known to be in trade; or

ii) it is probably in trade, but conclusive evidence is lacking; or

iii) there is potential international demand for specimens; or

iv) it would probably enter trade were it not subject to Appendix-I controls;

c) any species that meets the criteria for inclusion in Appendix II listed in Annex 2 a should be included in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (a);

d) species should be included in Appendix II under the provisions of Article II, paragraph 2 (b), if they satisfy the criteria listed in Annex 2 b;

e) species should be included in more than one Appendix at the same time, and higher taxa should be included in the Appendices, only if the species or higher taxa concerned satisfy the relevant criteria listed in Annex 3;

f) species of which all specimens in trade have been bred in captivity or artificially propagated should not be included in the Appendices if there is no probability of trade taking place in specimens of wild origin;

g) any species included in Appendix I for which sufficient data are available to demonstrate that it does not meet the criteria listed in Annex 1 should be transferred to Appendix II only in accordance with the relevant precautionary measures listed in Annex 4;

h) any species included in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (a), that does not meet the criteria listed in Annex 2 a should be deleted only in accordance with the relevant precautionary measures listed in Annex 4; and species included in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (b), because they look like the species subject to the deletion, or for a related reason, should also be deleted only in accordance with the relevant precautionary measures; and

i) the views, if any, of intergovernmental organizations with competence for the management of the species concerned should be taken into account;

RESOLVES that proposals to amend Appendices I and II should be based on the best information available and presented in the format in Annex 6, unless otherwise justified;

RESOLVES that, to monitor the effectiveness of protection offered by the Convention, the status of species included in Appendices I and II should be regularly reviewed by the range States and proponents, in collaboration with the Animals Committee or the Plants Committee, subject to the availability of funds;

URGES Parties and cooperating organizations to provide financial and technical assistance, when requested, in the preparation of proposals to amend the Appendices, the development of management programmes, and the review of the effectiveness of the inclusion of species in the Appendices. Parties should be open to using other available international mechanisms and instruments for these purposes in the broader context of biodiversity;

RECOMMENDS that the text and the Annexes of this Resolution be fully reviewed before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties with regard to the scientific validity of the criteria, definitions, notes and guidelines and their applicability to different groups of organisms; and

REPEALS the Resolutions listed hereunder:

a) Resolution Conf. 1.1 (Bern, 1976) – Criteria for the Addition of Species and Other Taxa to Appendices I and II and for the Transfer of Species and Other Taxa from Appendix II to Appendix I;

b) Resolution Conf. 1.2 (Bern, 1976) – Criteria for the Deletion of Species and Other Taxa from Appendices I and II;

c) Resolution Conf. 2.17 (San José, 1979) – Format for Proposals to Amend Appendix I or II;

d) Resolution Conf. 2.19 (San José, 1979) – Criteria for Addition of Extremely Rare Species to Appendix I;

e) Resolution Conf. 2.20 (San José, 1979) – The Use of the Subspecies as a Taxonomic Unit in the Appendices;

f) Resolution Conf. 2.21 (San José, 1979) – Species Thought to Be Extinct;

g) Resolution Conf. 2.22 (San José, 1979) – Trade in Feral Species;

h) Resolution Conf. 2.23 (San José, 1979) – Special Criteria for the Deletion of Species and Other Taxa Included in Appendix I or II without Application of the Bern Criteria for Addition;

i) Resolution Conf. 3.20 (New Delhi, 1981) – Ten-year Review of the Appendices;

j) Resolution Conf. 4.26 (Gaborone, 1983) – Ten-year Review of the Appendices;

k) Resolution Conf. 7.14 (Lausanne, 1989) – Special Criteria for the Transfer of Taxa from Appendix I to Appendix II; and

l) Resolution Conf. 8.20 (Kyoto, 1992) – Development of New Criteria for Amendment of the Appendices.

Annex 1

Biological criteria for Appendix I

The following criteria must be read in conjunction with the definitions, notes and guidelines listed in Annex 5.

A species is considered to be threatened with extinction if it meets, or is likely to meet, at least one of the following criteria.

A. The wild population is small, and is characterized by at least one of the following:

i) an observed, inferred or projected decline in the number of individuals or the area and quality of habitat; or

ii) each sub-population being very small; or

iii) a majority of individuals, during one or more life-history phases, being concentrated in one sub-population; or

iv) large short-term fluctuations in the number of individuals; or

v) a high vulnerability due to the species' biology or behaviour (including migration).

B. The wild population has a restricted area of distribution and is characterized by at least one of the following:

i) fragmentation or occurrence at very few locations; or

ii) large fluctuations in the area of distribution or the number of sub-populations; or

iii) a high vulnerability due to the species' biology or behaviour (including migration); or

iv) an observed, inferred or projected decrease in any one of the following:

– the area of distribution; or

– the number of sub-populations; or

– the number of individuals; or

– the area or quality of habitat; or

– reproductive potential.

C. A decline in the number of individuals in the wild, which has been either:

i) observed as ongoing or as having occurred in the past (but with a potential to resume); or

ii) inferred or projected on the basis of any one of the following:

– a decrease in area or quality of habitat; or

– levels or patterns of exploitation; or

– threats from extrinsic factors such as the effects of pathogens, competitors, parasites, predators, hybridization, introduced species and the effects of toxins and pollutants; or

– decreasing reproductive potential.

D. The status of the species is such that if the species is not included in Appendix I, it is likely to satisfy one or more of the above criteria within a period of five years.

Annex 2 a

Criteria for the inclusion of species in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (a)

The following criteria must be read in conjunction with the definitions, notes and guidelines listed in Annex 5.

A species should be included in Appendix II when either of the following criteria is met.

A. It is known, inferred or projected that unless trade in the species is subject to strict regulation, it will meet at least one of the criteria listed in Annex 1 in the near future.

B. It is known, inferred or projected that the harvesting of specimens from the wild for international trade has, or may have, a detrimental impact on the species by either:

i) exceeding, over an extended period, the level that can be continued in perpetuity; or

ii) reducing it to a population level at which its survival would be threatened by other influences.

Annex 2 b

Criteria for the inclusion of species in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (b)

Species should be included in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2 (b), if they satisfy one of the following criteria.

A. The specimens resemble specimens of a species included in Appendix II under the provisions of Article II, paragraph 2 (a), or in Appendix I, such that a non-expert, with reasonable effort, is unlikely to be able to distinguish between them.

B. The species is a member of a taxon of which most of the species are included in Appendix II under the provisions of Article II, paragraph 2 (a), or in Appendix I, and the remaining species must be included to bring trade in specimens of the others under effective control.

Annex 3

Special cases

Split-listing

Listing of a species in more than one Appendix should be avoided in general in view of the enforcement problems it creates. When split-listing does occur, this should generally be on the basis of national or continental populations, rather than subspecies. Split-listings that place some populations of a species in the Appendices, and the rest outside the Appendices, should normally not be permitted.

For species outside the jurisdiction of any State, listing in the Appendices should use the terms used in other relevant international agreements, if any, to define the population. If no such international agreement exists, then the Appendices should define the population by region or by geographic coordinates.

Taxonomic names below the species level should not be used in the Appendices unless the taxon in question is highly distinctive and the use of the name would not give rise to enforcement problems.

Higher taxa

If all species of a higher taxon are included in Appendix I or II, they should be included under the name of the higher taxon. If some species in a higher taxon are included in Appendix I or II and all the rest in the other Appendix, the latter species should be included under the name of the higher taxon, with an appropriate annotation.

Annex 4

Precautionary measures

A. When considering proposals to amend the Appendices, the Parties shall, in the case of uncertainty, either as regards the status of a species or as regards the impact of trade on the conservation of a species, act in the best interest of the conservation of the species.

B. 1. No species listed in Appendix I shall be removed from the Appendices unless it has been first transferred to Appendix II, with monitoring of any impact of trade on the species for at least two intervals between meetings of the Conference of the Parties.

2. Species included in Appendix I should only be considered for transfer to Appendix II if they do not satisfy the relevant criteria in Annex 1. Even if such species do not satisfy the relevant criteria in Annex 1, they should be retained in Appendix I unless they satisfy one of the following criteria:

a) the species is not in demand for international trade, nor is its transfer to Appendix II likely to stimulate trade in, or cause enforcement problems for, any other species included in Appendix I; or

b) the species is likely to be in demand for trade, but its management is such that the Conference of the Parties is satisfied with:

i) implementation by the range States of the requirements of the Convention, in particular Article IV; and

ii) appropriate enforcement controls and compliance with the requirements of the Convention; or

c) an integral part of the amendment proposal is an export quota approved by the Conference of the Parties, based on management measures described in the supporting statement of the amendment proposal, provided that effective enforcement controls are in place; or

d) an integral part of the amendment proposal is an export quota approved by the Conference of the Parties for a specified period of time, based on management measures described in the supporting statement of the amendment proposal, provided that effective enforcement controls are in place; or

e) a ranching proposal is submitted consistent with the applicable Resolutions of the Conference of the Parties and is approved.

3. No proposal for transfer of a species from Appendix I to Appendix II with an export quota shall be considered from a Party that has entered a reservation for the species in question, unless that Party agrees to remove the reservation within 90 days of the adoption of the amendment.

4. No species should be deleted from Appendix II if such deletion would be likely to result in it qualifying for inclusion in the Appendices in the near future.

C. The following review procedures shall apply when a species is transferred to Appendix II pursuant to paragraphs B 2 c) and B 2 d) above.

1. Where the Plants Committee, the Animals Committee or a Party becomes aware of problems in compliance with the management measures and export quotas of another Party, the Secretariat shall be informed and, if the Secretariat fails to resolve the matter satisfactorily, it shall inform the Standing Committee which may, after consultation with the Party concerned, recommend to all Parties that they suspend trade with that Party in specimens of CITES-listed species, and/or request the Depositary Government to prepare a proposal to transfer the population back to Appendix I.

2. If, on review of a quota and its supporting management measures, the Animals or Plants Committee encounters any problems with compliance or potential detriment to a species, the relevant Committee shall request the Depositary Government to prepare a proposal for appropriate remedial action.

D. If the proponent Party wishes to renew, amend or delete a quota established pursuant to paragraph B 2 d) above, it shall submit an appropriate proposal for consideration at the next meeting of the Conference of the Parties. In anticipation of there being no such proposal submitted, the Depositary Government shall submit a proposal for consideration at the next meeting of the Conference of the Parties to impose a zero quota.

E. Species that are regarded as possibly extinct should not be deleted from Appendix I if they may be affected by trade in the event of their rediscovery; these species should be annotated in the Appendices as ‘p.e.’ (i.e. possibly extinct).

Annex 5

Definitions, notes and guidelines

Area of distribution

Area of distribution is defined as the area contained within the shortest continuous imaginary boundary which can be drawn to encompass all the known, inferred or projected sites of occurrence, excluding cases of vagrancy (though inferring and projecting area of occurrence should be undertaken carefully, and in a precautionary manner). The area within the imaginary boundary should, however, exclude significant areas where the species does not occur, and so in defining area of distribution, account should be taken of discontinuities or disjunctions in the spatial distribution of species. For migratory species, the area of distribution is the smallest area essential at any stage for the survival of that species (e.g. colonial nesting sites, feeding sites, etc.). For some species in trade where data exist to make an estimate, a figure of less than 10,000 km2 has been found to be an appropriate guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes a restricted area of distribution. However, this figure is presented only as an example, since it is impossible to give numerical values that are applicable to all taxa. There will be many cases where this numerical guideline does not apply.

Decline

A decline is a reduction in the number of individuals, or a decrease of the area of distribution, the causes of which are either not known or not adequately controlled. It need not necessarily still be continuing. Natural fluctuations will not normally count as part of a decline, but an observed decline should not be considered part of a natural fluctuation unless there is evidence for this. A decline that is the result of a harvesting programme that reduces the population to a planned level, not detrimental to the survival of the species, is not covered by the term ‘decline’.

For some species in trade where data exist to make an estimate, a decrease of 50% or more in total within 5 years or two generations, whichever is the longer, has been found to be an appropriate guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes a decline. A guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes a decline in a small wild population could be 20% or more in total within ten years or three generations, whichever is the longer. However, both these figures are presented only as examples, since it is impossible to give numerical values that are applicable to all taxa. There will be many cases where these numerical guidelines do not apply.

Extended period

The meaning of the term extended period will vary according to the biological characteristics of the species. Selection of the period will depend upon the observed pattern of natural fluctuations in the abundance of the species and on whether the number of specimens removed from the wild is consistent with a sustainable harvesting programme that is based on these natural fluctuations.

Fragmentation

Fragmentation refers to the case where most individuals within a taxon are found in small and relatively isolated sub-populations, which increases the probability that these small sub-populations will become extinct and the opportunities for re-establishment are limited. For some species in trade where data exist to make an estimate, an area of distribution of 500 km2 or less for each sub-population has been found to be an appropriate guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes fragmentation. However, this figure is presented only as an example, since it is impossible to give numerical values that are applicable to all taxa. There will be many cases where this numerical guideline does not apply.

Generation

Generation is measured as the average age of parents in the population; except in the case of species that breed only once a lifetime, this will always be longer than the age at maturity.

Large fluctuations

Large fluctuations occur in a number of species where the population size or area of distribution varies widely, rapidly and frequently, with a variation greater than one order of magnitude. For some species in trade where data exist to make an estimate, a figure of two years or less has been found to be an appropriate guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes a short-term fluctuation. However, this figure is presented only as an example, since it is impossible to give numerical values that are applicable to all taxa. There will be many cases where this numerical guideline does not apply.

Population

Population is measured as the total number of individuals of the species (as defined in Article I of the Convention). In the case of species biologically dependent on other species for all or part of their life cycles, biologically appropriate values for the host species should be chosen. For some species in trade where data exist to make an estimate, a figure of less than 5,000 individuals has been found to be an appropriate guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes a small wild population. However, this figure is presented only as an example, since it is impossible to give numerical values that are applicable to all taxa. There will be many cases where this numerical guideline does not apply.

Possibly extinct

A species is presumed extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or suspected habitat, and at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Before a species can be declared possibly extinct, surveys should take place over a time frame appropriate to the species' life cycle and life form.

Sub-populations

Sub-populations are defined as geographically or otherwise distinct groups in the population between which there is little exchange. For some species in trade where data exist to make an estimate, a figure of less than 500 individuals has been found to be an appropriate guideline (not a threshold) of what constitutes a very small sub-population. However, this figure is presented only as an example, since it is impossible to give numerical values that are applicable to all taxa. There will be many cases where this numerical guideline does not apply.

Threatened with extinction

Threatened with extinction is defined by Annex 1. The vulnerability of a species to threats of extinction depends on its population demographics, biological characteristics, such as body size, trophic level, life cycle, breeding structure or social structure requirements for successful reproduction, and vulnerability due to aggregating habits, natural fluctuations in population size (dimensions of time and magnitude), residency/migratory patterns. This makes it impossible to give numerical values for population size or area of distribution that are applicable to all taxa.

Annex 6

Format for proposals to amend the Appendices

The following provides information and instructions for the submission of a proposal to amend the Appendices and the appropriate supporting statement. Proponents should be guided by the need to provide to the Conference of the Parties sufficient information, of sufficient quality and in sufficient detail (to the extent available), to allow the Conference to judge the proposal against the criteria established for the proposed action. This means that the relevant published and unpublished sources of information should be used, but acknowledges that for some species the amount of scientific information will be limited. Furthermore, this means that it may not be possible to address all elements of the Proposal Format.

A. Proposal

The proponent should indicate the intent of the specific action being proposed and the relevant criteria against which the proposal is to be judged.

– Inclusion in Appendix I

– Inclusion in Appendix II

– in accordance with Article II 2(a)

– in accordance with Article II 2(b)

– for reasons of look-alike problems (in this case, the name of the similar species already included in the Appendices should be given in section C 7. Additional Remarks)

– for other reasons (such as those referred to in Annex 3 to this Resolution)

– Transfer from Appendix I to Appendix II in accordance with a precautionary measure specified in Annex 4 to this Resolution

– Deletion from Appendix II

– Other action (provide explanation)

B. Proponent

The proponent may only be a Party to the Convention, in accordance with Article XV of the Convention.

C. Supporting statement

1. Taxonomy

The proponent should provide sufficient information to allow the Conference of the Parties to identify clearly the taxon that is the subject of the proposal.

1.1 Class

1.2 Order

1.3 Family

1.4 Genus, species or subspecies, including author and year

If the species concerned is included in one of the standard lists of names or taxonomic references adopted by the Conference of the Parties, the name provided by that reference should be entered here. If the species concerned is not included in one of the adopted standard references, the proponent should provide references as to the source of the name used.

1.5 Scientific synonyms

1.6 Common names

The proponent should provide information on other scientific names or synonyms under which the species concerned may be known currently, especially if these names are used in the trade in the species.

1.7 Code numbers

If the species concerned is already included in the Appendices, refer to the code numbers in the CITES Identification Manual.

2. Biological parameters

The information required in this section is a summary of the principal results of surveys, literature searches, and other studies. The references used must be listed in section 8. of the proposal. It is understood that the quality of information available will vary a lot. But these instructions indicate the type of information that is required.

2.1 Distribution

Give an estimate of the current range of the species, and specify the references used. Specify the types of habitats occupied and, if possible, the extent of each habitat type over the range of the species. If possible, provide information to indicate whether or not the distribution of the species is continuous and, if it is not, indicate to what degree it is fragmented.

2.2 Habitat availability

Give information on the nature, rate and extent of habitat loss and/or degradation, if possible with information from at least three points in time, and give the basis for future projections.

2.3 Population status

Give an estimate of the total population or number of individuals with: i) date and nature of census; and ii) justification for any inferences made about total population size and/or number of individuals. Give the number of sub-populations, where possible their estimated size, and the date and method of census. Give an estimate of, or information on, the size of the population in captivity.

2.4 Population trends

Basic, quantitative and referenced information should be provided on whether the population of the species is increasing, stable or declining. The period over which the trend, if any, has been measured should be indicated. If the species naturally undergoes marked fluctuations in population size, information should be provided to demonstrate that the trend transcends natural fluctuations. If generation-time has been used in estimating the trend, state how the generation-time has been estimated.

2.5 Geographic trends

Give data on the nature, rate and extent of decrease in range area or number of sub-populations, if possible with information from at least three points in time. Give data on the degree and periodicity of fluctuations in range area or number of sub-populations, if possible with information from at least three points in time.

2.6 Role of the species in its ecosystem

Give information about the specific relationship that exists between this species and others living in the same ecosystem. Indicate the possible consequences of depletion of the population of the species proposed for listing, for those depending on or associated with it.

2.7 Threats

Specify the nature, intensity and extent of threats (e.g. habitat loss and/or degradation; exploitation; effects of introduced species, competitors, pathogens, parasites, predators, hybridization and the effects of toxins and pollutants; etc), if possible with information from at least three points in time, and give the basis for future projections.

3. Utilization and trade

3.1 National utilization

Give data on the level of exploitation, indicating trends if possible. Specify the purposes of exploitation. Provide details of harvest methods. Assess the importance of the offtake and the relationship between national and international trade.

Provide details of any stockpiles known to exist, and the measures that might be taken to dispose of them.

Where applicable, provide details of commercial captive-breeding or artificial propagation operations for the species in question, including the size of captive stock and the production, and the extent to which these operations are either contributing to a conservation programme or meeting a demand that would otherwise be met by specimens from the wild.

3.2 Legal international trade

Quantify the level of international trade, identifying the source of statistics used (e.g. Customs statistics, CITES annual report data, FAO data, industry reports, etc.). Provide justification for inferences made about trade levels. Provide information about the nature of the trade (e.g. primarily for commercial purposes, primarily live specimens, primarily parts and derivatives, primarily of captive-bred or artificially propagated specimens, etc.) and about how the proposed amendment is expected to affect the nature of the trade.

3.3 Illegal trade

To the extent possible, quantify the level of illegal trade, including national and international trade, and provide details of the nature of this trade. Assess the relative importance of this trade as it relates to legal offtake for national use or legal international trade. Provide information on how the proposed amendment is expected to affect the nature of the trade.

3.4 Actual or potential trade impacts

Comment on the actual or potential trade impacts of the proposed amendment on the species in question, and on the reason for believing that trade might become a threat to the survival of the species in question, or on whether trade may be beneficial to the survival of the species in question. Where applicable, include information on the actual or potential ecological impacts of the change in trade controls.

3.5 Captive breeding or artificial propagation for commercial purposes (outside country of origin)

To the extent possible, provide information on the extent of captive breeding or artificial propagation outside the country or countries of origin.

4. Conservation and management

4.1 Legal status

4.1.1 National

Provide details of legislation relating to the conservation of the species, including its habitat, either specifically (such as endangered species legislation) or generally (such as legislation on wildlife and accompanying regulations). Indicate the nature of legal protection (i.e. is the species totally protected, or whether harvesting is regulated or controlled). Provide an assessment of the effectiveness of this legislation in ensuring the protection and/or wise management of the species.

Provide similar information relating to legislation governing the management of trade in the species in question. Provide an assessment of the effectiveness of this legislation in controlling illegal trade in the species.

4.1.2 International

In preparing proposals to amend the Appendices, consult in advance with the relevant competent intergovernmental organizations responsible for the conservation and management of the species, and take their views fully into account.

Provide details of international instruments relating to the species in question, including the nature of the protection afforded by such instruments. Provide an assessment of the effectiveness of these instruments in ensuring the protection and/or wise management of the species.

Provide similar information relating to international instruments relating to the management of trade in the species in question. Provide an assessment of the effectiveness of these instruments in controlling illegal trade in the species.

4.2 Species management

4.2.1 Population monitoring

Provide details of programmes in place in the range States to monitor the status of wild populations and the sustainability of offtake from the wild. Such programmes might be under the auspices of government or through non-governmental organizations or scientific institutions. Indicate the extent to which non-governmental monitoring programmes link to governmental decision-making.

4.2.2 Habitat conservation

Provide details of programmes in place in the range States to protect the habitat of the species in question, both inside and outside protected areas. Provide details about the nature of the protection offered by the programmes in question.

4.2.3 Management measures

Provide details of programmes in place in the range States to manage populations of the species in question (e.g. controlled harvest from the wild, captive breeding or artificial propagation, reintroduction, ranching, quota systems, etc.). Include, where appropriate, details such as planned harvest rates, planned population sizes, mechanisms for ensuring that the advice of those responsible for management of the species is taken into account, mechanisms and criteria for the establishment of quotas, etc.

Where applicable, provide details of any mechanisms used to ensure a return from utilization of the species in question to conservation and/or management programmes (e.g. pricing schemes, community ownership plans, export tariffs, etc.).

4.3 Control measures

4.3.1 International trade

Provide information regarding measures in place, in addition to CITES, to control the movement of specimens of the species in question across international borders. Include information about marking schemes in place, if any.

4.3.2 Domestic measures

Provide information regarding controls in the range States aimed at ensuring a sustainable harvest from the wild of the species in question. Include information on education, compliance and enforcement activities as appropriate and an assessment of the effectiveness of the programmes.

5. Information on similar species

Give the names of species of which specimens in trade look very similar, state how they may be distinguished, and explain whether or not it is reasonable to expect an informed non-expert to be able to make a firm identification. Outline measures that would need to be taken to handle potential difficulties in distinguishing between specimens of this and similar species.

If the proposed amendment would be likely to lead to an increase in trade in the species concerned, explain why this would not result in unsustainable trade in similar species.

6. Other comments

Provide details of the consultation undertaken to secure comments on the proposal from the range States of the species, either through direct contact or via the CITES Secretariat. Comments received from each country should be provided. Where comments were sought but not received in sufficient time to enable their inclusion in the supporting statement, this should be noted, as well as the date of the request.

In cases of consultation with Parties via the CITES Secretariat, information from range States and non-range States should be separated.

In the case of species that are also managed through other international agreements or intergovernmental bodies, provide details of the consultations undertaken to obtain the comments of those organizations or bodies, and indicate how those comments have been addressed in the supporting statement. Where comments were sought but not received in sufficient time to enable their inclusion in the supporting statement, this should be noted, as well as the date of the request.

7. Additional remarks

8. References

Source:  Document URL: http:// www.cites.org /CITES/eng/resols/9/9_24.shtml
Revision date: 02-11-2000 |



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